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Full text of "Sprague's journal of Maine history"

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JULY 




History is the truth; ever impartial; 
never prejudiced 



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1918 



■■W9 
1 




G 
PUBLISHED BY^ 

JOHN FRMICIS ^PRACJOE 
DOVER,Ml^. 




F (C 

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WM. W. ROBERTS CO. 

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Cbe MaterviUe riDorning Sentinel 

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CONTENTS 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVety, M. D. 




The E. & M. Hospital JJ^ 

Newport, Maine - l ' 

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gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

John Gilniore Deane 3 

Some Knights of the Road lo 

Alphabetical Index of Revolutionary Pensioners in Maine. i8 

.Vfigiistine .Simmons 25 

About the U. S. Census in Maine for the Year 1800 28 

More Abotit Rev. Samuel Moody 30 

i\eferring to the Organization of Penobscot County 31 

M-chael Philbrick, Son of Capt. Zachariah Philbrick 33 

P>rowsings by the Editor in his Own Library 34 

Sayings of Subscribers 30 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man of Somerset Co. 

Never a Failure—Never a Uaw Suit---Wh=it more do you want? 
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sruA(;ri<:'s journal of maine history 







Lewis' Map of Maine — 1794. 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI MAY JUNE JULY 1918 No. 1 



John Gilmore Deane 

By Eugar Crosby Smith. 

Xumbered among those men, who in the first half of the last 
century, helped to place our state on a firm basis, and a pedestal of 
prominence with the others which compose our union, and who to 
our shame and regret we are relegating to a nameless oblivion, is 
one whose name in his day and generation was known and honored 
throughout our borders. 

Born in our mother state, of genuine old Bay State stock, John 
Gilmore Deane first saw the light of day March 2"] . 1/85, in the old 
town of Raynham. His parents, Joseph Deane and ^lary Gilmoie, 
both were born in that town, and lived all their days there. Air. 
Joseph Deane was a pros[terous farmer and a highly respected in- 
habitant of his native town, of high repute for his honesty and in- 
tegrity, and held in great esteem by his neighbors and townspeople. 
He served in the War of the Revolution, entering the service imme- 
diately • after the Concord and Lexington fight, and remained in 
the regular service for several years. 

John G. Deane had the benefit of a college education, graduatirig 
from Brown university in 1806. He read law in Taunton, ]\Iass.. 
with Hon. Seth Padelford, judge of probate, and came to Ellsworth, 
Maine, Sept. 2}^. 1809. The following September (the 13th) he 
married Rebecca, the youngest daughter of Judge Padelford. his 
former law tutor. 

Air. Deane sailed from lioston for Ellsworth, Thiu\sday, Septem- 
ber 21, and arrived at the head of Union bay the following Satur- 
day. As the tide was too low when the vessel arrived to permj"t 
t'ne passing of the bar, he jM'evailed upon the captain to set him 
ashore at Surry, and from there he walked the remaining two miles 
to Ellsworth. He at once secured a boarding place and a rnoiii 



4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



for an office, and on Tuesday started on a trip to Castine to gee 
for himself blanks necessary in his practice. On his trip to Castine 
he went u[) to Hampden, and visited accjuaintances, a Mr. and Mrs. 
lirown. Here he met General Ulmer of Lincolnville, who ufgec 
him to settle in that town, and invited him to pay him a visit and 
look over the situation. Two days later he went down to Lincoln- 
ville. and although the general made him very generous induce- 
ments, offering to take him into his family to live, and to furnish 
him enough business to pay for his board, Mr. Deane considered 
that Ellsworth promised more for the future, and remained firm in 
his original determination to settle in that town. 

He returned to Ellsworth October 3, and commenced fitting up 
his office. In a letter of October 6, to his future wife, he says he 
is ready to begin j)ractice. His equipment at the time consisted of 
his few books, one chair, a table and a bench. 

Close application to business, and carefully guarding the interests 
of his clients, soon brought him a fair clientage, which grew to 
large proportions as the years went by. During the earlier ye:irs 
of his professional life he was connected with the military organi- 
zation in Ellsworth, and held a commission as lieutenant-colonel. 
He served for a short time in the war of 181 2. 

In person Mr. Deane was about five feet and ten inches in height 
of (juite large frame, dark complexioned, brown hair and eyes, 
rather spare, and never wore a beard ; an entertaining conversa- 
tionalist, though not much inclined to be talkative. Hon Charles 
S. Davies, a colleague and co-laborer with Mr. Deane in the ad- 
justment of tile North Eastern boundary ({uestion, said of his ])er- 
sonal api)earance in an obituary notice, "the cast of his countenance 
was remarka1)]y intellectual and indicative of acuteness, foresight 
and sagaciu. 1 1 had also something of a more grave, reflective 
and resolved cliaracter. The upper part of the face, particularly 
the intersection of the principal features, bore a striking resem- 
blance to the bust of Alexander Hamilton, wdiile the perpetual 
activity of its fil)res in ihcir animated expression, might remind one 
who had seen the original of the incessant motion of Lord 
Ilrougham's." 

He was much loved in his family, entering into the sports of 
his children with a zest that made him one of them, and as one of 
his sons said, "More tlie big brother than the stern i)arent." He 
was an admirer of manly sports, fond of hunting and fishing and 



JOHN GILMORE DEANE 



an excellent marksman. He loved the woods and the study of 
nature. Surely these traits of character eminently fitted him for 
the prominent part which he was to take in later years in the 
exploration and survey of our northern wilderness. He was also a 
man of decided literary tastes, and his style of composition was 
clear and polished, as an inspection of any of his writings and 
reports on the North Eastern Boundary question will show. 

He collected a good sized library, consisting of history, poetry, 
romance and essays. His law library was very large in comparison 
with those of his day. He was a subscriber to the North American 
Review from its first issue to the time of his death. 

Mr. Deane was not a member of any church, but he was a con- 
stant attendant at the Congregational church in Ellsworth after its 
organization in 1812, and his pastor during all the time of his life 
in Ellsworth was the much revered Parson Peter Nourse, the 
brother of the U. S. senator, Dr. Amos Nourse of Bath. He was 
of a Catholic spirit, and all the church organizations received as- 
sistance from his purse. When the Baptist church was erected he 
purchased a pew there, although his attendance was still with the 
Congregationalists. 

But as interesting as each little event connected with the lives of 
our pioneers and early statesmen may be, I must, with reluctance, 
leave this part of my sketch, and turn to the more important events 
in the life of the man whose work for his state was of so great 
concern. ]\Ir. Deane was admitted to practice in the Court of 
Common Pleas in Hancock county, in 18 10, and four years later, 
as was the rule in those days, as an attorney and counselor in the 
Supreme court. As his reputation grew for being a learned, sound, 
and discriminating lawyer, so his practice increased accordingly, 
and very shortly he was enjoying a remunerative clientage. As 
his business extended he was brought in touch with prominent men 
in all parts of the state, and numbered among his personal friends 
were Jacob McGaw, Prentiss Mellen, Joshua Hathaway, Simon 
Greenleaf, William P. Preble, and many others of equal note and 
distinction. 

It is certain that he took an active interest in municipal affairs 
as soon as he was settled in Ellsworth, for he was one of the select- 
men as early as 1813. He was first brought prominently before the 
general public by being elected a member of the General Court of 
Massachusetts in 1816; he was returned to that honorable position 



6 S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

for four consecutive terms, thus indicating that he filled the posi- 
tion to the eminent satisfaction of his constituents. 

He was a member of the House of representatives of the Maine 
legislature for the years 1825, '26, '27, '28, and '31, and it was 
during his service there that he became a particularly conspicuous 
figure, not only in Maine, but throughout the borders of our 
country, on account of the prominent part he took in bringing about 
the settlement of the dispute over our northeastern boundary, and 
the vast fund of material he had collected, and knowledge acquired 
relating to this vexed and troublesome controversy ; a controversy 
that he was not permitted to live to see settled. 

In 1827, Governor Lincoln endeavored to bring this matter to the 
attention of the general government with a view to having the 
matter finally determined, and referred to the question in his mes- 
sage to the legislature. A committee was appointed to whom was 
referred "So much of the governor's message as relates to the 
northeastern boundary,'' and Mr. Deane was its chairman. 

Perhaps it may be well to take a glance at the previous training 
that so peculiarly fitted him to fill the position that from this time 
on until his death he assumed regarding our north and eastern 
frontier. 

As has been said previously, he was a lover of nature ; he loved 
to feel himself in her sublime and ennobling presence, and as one 
has said of him, "He loved to pierce the vast, profound, unpeopled 
solitudes of the forest. He liked also to meet the remnant of the 
ancient race of proprietors, in their native woods." His natural 
ent inclined towards these things, and he cultivated the inclination. 

Sometime before he settled in Ellsworth, John Black, a young 
Englishman, located there as deputy agent of the Bingham heirs, 
who owned large tracts of land in Washington and Hancock coun- 
ties, commonly known as the I'ingham purchase. Mr. Black later 
became an American citizen, and on account of his holding a com- 
mission in the militia, was known as Col. Black. The two men 
became intimate friends, and Col. Black employed Mr. Deane in 
his professional capacity in connection with the lands of which he 
had charge. This called for many excursions into the wilderness 
to inspect the lands, adjust disputes, and locate boundaries, and 
gave him much valuable and practical knowledge which was of 
great advantage to him in the performance of his duties relating 
to our (lis])Uted limits. 



JOHN GILMORE DEANE 



His duties as a member of the committee of the legislature of 
1827, did not require much labor, as this was about the beginning 
of our legislature as a body taking much interest in the subject; 
yet the report of the committee, which was prepared by Mr. Deane, 
though brief, shows that he had already given the matter much 
study, and that he was thoroughly familiar with the situation. 
In this report of his we find the key note of the whole political 
situation at the time, and the one that governed the Webster- 
Ashburton treaty of 1842, made after Mr. Deane's death. He 
says : "The rule for settling the boundary definitely, is clear and 
plain and explicit. Nor can we forbear to remark, that if views 
of national interest did not interfere there would be no difficulty in 
ascertaining the line.'' 

In 1828, the matter of the dispute over the northeastern boun- 
dary was a subject that interested everyone, the executive, the legis- 
lator, and the citizen. The British provinces had become aggres- 
sive, and one of our citizens was in the Fredericton jail charged 
with trespassing. Gov. Lincoln devoted over half of his message 
addressed to the legislature of 1828, to this all-absorbing topic. A 
joint select committee was appointed to whom was referred so 
much of the governor's message as related to the northeastern 
boundary question, of which committee Mr. Deane was chairman 
on the part of the House. Practically the whole of the work of 
preparing the elaborate report submitted to the legislature was his. 
It is always referred to as Deane's report, and he was granted an 
allowance of $100 for expenses in procuring information regard- 
ing the subject of his report. The report exclusive of documents 
occupies 56 closely printed pages of the acts and resolves. 

Much has been written on this subject, and by able men, but I 
doubt if a clearer, more concise, and accurate treatment of the 
question ever appeared. He traces the history of the boundary 
from the records of the earliest discoveries, grants and treaties, 
down to the time in which he wrote, and his array of facts and 
force of argument must convince the most skeptical that our claim 
was the just one. This report was ordered to be printed, and 
copies to be sent to the President of the United States, the gov- 
ernors of each of the states of the union, to each of our foreign 
ambassadors, and to our senators and representatives. So far as 
Maine is concerned, this is the most important document ever pub- 
lished relating to the question. 



8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Mr. Dearie's next term in the legislature was in 1831, when he 
was again a member of the House: again the governor referred to 
the much vexed boundary question, in his message, and Mr. Deane 
was again the spokesman and authority for the committee that was 
especially appointed to consider the matter. This report dealt with 
the unsatisfactory, idle and absurd award of the king of the Nether- 
lands, and Mr. Deane takes up paragraph after paragraph of that 
award and considers it in the light of history, statecraft, and in- 
ternational law, and leaves but little chance for argument when 
he has finished. The report of the king was not accepted. The 
arbiter's work was for naught. 

In 1838, during Gov. Kent's administration, a resolve was passed 
directing a survey and location of the northeastern boundary of 
our state, and Mr. Deane on account of his intimate and accurate 
knowledge of the subject and the country, was at once appointed 
to execute the commission. This work he did to the satisfaction 
of the government. 

From the time of his first interesting himself in the boundary 
question in 1827, it was an all-absorbing topic with him. He mas- 
tered more of its details, historical, geographical and statistical, 
than any other person, and wrote, spoke and printed, not only more 
than any other person, but possibly more than all others combined. 
Personal business was secondary with him, he ate, drank and 
slept with our northeastern boundary question. When discoursing 
on the subject he was in his native element, "His foot was on his 
native heath and his name was ^^IcGregor." No difficulty wearied 
him or obstacle appalled. He gave it his best thought, hardest 
labor and maturest deliberation. Never was a public servant more 
devoted to his trust than he ; it was his ruling passion. But possi- 
bly, providentially, he did not live to see the determination of the 
question by the Webster-Ashburton treaty in 1842. It would have 
been a cup of bitterness and a feast of mortification. It may have 
been statecraft, diplomacy, or international amity that efifected the 
compromise, but nevertheless we lost six million acres of most 
valuable territory, and receded from a position that was right 
logically, historically and lawfully. 

Mr. Deane removed to Portlaml in the fall of 1835. He died in 
the prime of his manhood at the age of 53. His death occurred at 
Cherryfield, in November, 1839, where he had gone on business 
connected with his large landed interests. 

"Strong to the end, a man of men, from out the strife he passed." 



JOHN GILMORE DEANE 



The Deaxe AIaps. 

The maps of Mr. Deane followed those of Moses Greenleaf, 
and were prepared for the special purpose of delineating our 
northern and eastern boundaries. Previous to 1838 there had 
'been only partial surveys of this disputed territory, and Mr. 
Deane's work as commissioner on behalf of the state to execute a 
full survey of these boundaries afforded him exceptional facilities 
to procure the material to make a map showing the true limits 
of our state. To accompany his report to the legislature, a large 
map of the territory survey was prepared under his direction, and 
having all the data at his disposal he considered it an opportune 
time to publish a map giving the exact north and east boundaries 
of the state, an undertaking that heretofore it had been impossible 
to accomplish. Three new counties had been incorporated since 
Mr. Greenleaf's map of 1829, viz: Aroostook, Franklin and Pis- 
catac^uis, consequently a new map of the state was needed. 

Air. Deane was not a civil engineer, neither was he a cartogra- 
pher, and the actual work of constructing and drafting his map 
was done by another hand, although under his direction and super- 
vision. ^Ir. Deane died the vear his first map was published, 

(1839). 

Mr. Williamson gives four editions of the Deane map, 1839, 
1840, 1842 and 1843. I have seen and examined but two, viz: The 
1840 and 1842. These are well executed, and are ,good examples of 
map-making. The size is T)3^-7' and the engraving was done by 
C. A. S'wett of Portland. 

His great work in locating our disputed boundaries soon came to 
naught, as the W'ebster-Ashburton treaty of 1842 changed ,the 
location entirely, and his maps were of no further usefulness so 
far as these were concerned. On account of this change, I assume 
that the sale of his maps was much curtailed, and they are becom- 
ing quite scarce. The work he intended to do was well performed, 
but events beyond his control abridged its usefulness. K the 
boundary had not been changed the map would have been of great 
value, as it is they are of mucli historical interest in showing the 
exact location of the bounds as claimed bv the state of ]\Iaine. 



lo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

Some Knights of the Road 

By Charles E. Waterman. 

It is a axiom with Boards of Trade and Chambers of Commerce 
that transportation facihties make a town ; and looking back into 
the past would indicate the slogan is not of recent origin. 

A party of pioneers can make a settlement, but it takes years of 
settlement with the slow accumulation of public utilities to make a 
town. The original purposes for which towns were incorporated 
were to support the unfortunate poor, to introduce and maintain 
schools, and to build and maintain roads. The first is necessary 
in any humane community and the second an investment for good 
citizenship; but the third is, perhaps, the most valuable of the 
three, for it presents a social and business opportunity for visiting 
one's neighbors to observe and absorb advance ideas which mean 
community progress. That this is true is easily confirmed in any 
community which has been sidetracked by reason of location from 
the great arteries of trafific and travel. They become stagnant. 

The look Ijackward discloses the fact that in what is now the 
State of Maine there was a time when there were no roads. The 
first settlers picked their way on foot through forest trails to the 
land they "took up." and for many years thereafter retraced them 
on foot or on horseback to older settlements which had become 
community centers. As more land was cleared, more cattle could 
be kept. To clear land on any extended scale, the ox became a 
necessity ; so the trails were widened into logging roads. With 
these slow animals settlers did such traveling as they were obliged 
to do. 

In tlie earlier days, there were no mails, and consequently little 
reading. As most of the settlers came from Massachusetts, their 
theocratic opinions of that commonwealth were made manifest in 
most households by the presence of a Bible. Without mails there 
could be no newspapers and letter writing w^as nearly a lost art 
among early settlers. On rare occasions letters were exchanged, 
but they were likely to remain in outpost postofificcs for days and 
weeks and many times months l)efore someone from the community 
to which they were addressed arrived and called for such mail as 
belonged to In'mself or neighbors. 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE RO AD 1 1 



When the United States set up housekeeping and took her first 
census in 1790, she found but a single postroad within the District 
of Maine running along the Atlantic shore eastward from Boston, 
as far as Wiscasset, and but two postoffices, one at Portland and 
the other at Wiscasset. The latter office was established the very 
year the census was taken, and the first postriders from Portland 
to Wiscasset were John Smith Foye and Samuel Seavey. 

The post route between Boston and Portland had been estab- 
lished in 1775. William Wescott was the first mail carrier. He 
traveled sometimes on foot and sometimes on horseback at first. 
but later on horseback altogether. It was intended to be a weekly 
service, but was in fact very irregular. A coach was put on as far 
as Portland in 1787. It is related in AIcLellan's History of the 
Town of Gorham, that the first chaise to travel east of Saco was 
in 1777 when Stephen Gorham and wife visited relatives in Buxton. 
As immigrants became more firmly settled in their wilderness 
homes, and began to exchange their log cabins for frame houses 
the desire for roads became more pronounced. The newly made 
plantations and towns confiscated the logging roads running from 
house to house, dug out the stumps and stones, filled up the mud 
holes, and made culverts and bridges across watercourses. There 
was a demand for trunk lines running through strings of towns 
connecting them with seaports. That they should be as direct as 
possible, required they should be laid out by some power not 
interested in single towns but in the settlements as a whole; so this 
power was first delegated to the courts. 

In the western part of the District, all roads centered in Portland, 
then as now the principal seaport ; and in that day people depended 
■more on the sea for transportation and sustenance than at present. 

The opening of communication between seaport and interior 
awakened sleeping memories of settlers to the conventions of older 
communities. They wanted to hear from relatives in longer settled 
parts of the colonies, and from the world in general, so they 
brushed up their handwriting and called for a postal service. 

The first services in this line were post riders who traveled on 
horseback (as most of the roads were yet unfit for vehicles') witii 
saddlebags in which to stow away mail for the dift'erent postoffices. 
They also maintained a private delivery of newspapers to patrons 
along the route, for Portland had discovered the new life of her 
neighbors and established a newspaper (The Falmouth Gazette in 



12 S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

1785^- Each rider carried a long tin horn upon which he blew a 
blast when approaching either a postoffice or private patron. 

In 1793 a highway was laid out running from Portland through 
the towns of Gray, New Gloucester, Greene, Monmouth, Winthrop 
and Hallowell to Augusta, and from that settlement through Pitts- 
ton and Pownalboro to Wiscasset. The next year \\'illiam Blossom 
went on the route as postrider, making weekly trips. The first 
coach was put on this line in 1806. 

In i7(/; a route was laid out from Portland to P.ridgton. In 
1802 this route was extended to Waterford. Jacob Howe was the 
rider, and he traveled through the following towns : From Port- 
land to Gorham, Standish, Raymond and Bridgton to Waterford, 
and returning through Norway, Paris, Hebron, Poland, Nev/ Glou- 
cester and Gray. 

The local ])ostoffice followed the introduction of the postrider, 
and the extension of routes is recorded cjuite accurately by the 
dates of which local of^ces were established in the various towns. 
The office in Augusta was established in 1794; Greene in 1796; 
Lewiston in 1799; Waterford in 1800; Paris, Norway and Poland 
in 1801. 

The perfection attained by highways is also shown quite accu- 
rately by the history of postal routes. The riders generally traveled 
horseback for a decade or two after the routes were established. 

In 1812 William Sawin, who was on the Waterford route, adver- 
tised that he would travel with a light wagon and carry passengers 
when asked to do so in advance. In 1820 he put on a four-horse 
coach. The roads by that time had attained a degree of perfec- 
tion suf^cient to accommodate such vehicles ; also the people had 
began to travel to an extent warranting the introduction of a 
coach. Beside carrying mail and passengers each driver did (piite- 
an express business. 

Mail carriers were advance agents of progress in more ways 
than one. Not only did they introduce the local postofHce, but 
the local store as well. The postoffice was the center of a com- 
munity, and it was but a stej) from delivering mail to supplying 
merchandise ; so the ])Ostoffice became the store as well, goods being 
received largely via the mail coach. 

One can rcadilv believe the first merchants were peddlers, travel- 
ing on horseback witli saddlebags. Records of such callings are 
not numerous but some have come down to us. For instance, ^lark 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD 13 

Andrews was the first merchant of Turner, going from house to 
house with saddlebags. In 1793 he had such things in his stock 
as spelling-books, mouse traps, jewsharps, fish-hooks, jack-knives 
and tacks. 

As stores increased in size and number, merchandise became too 
bulky for transportation on stage coaches and freight services were 
introduced. There was another reason for the special freight ser- 
vice. In early days money was not plenty and barter was an im- 
|X)rtant element of trade. There was, therefore, merchandise to 
transport not only from but to seaports, consequently in about the 
third decade of the nineteenth century the freight wagon became an 
established institution. As the pay was unusually large for the 
times, ambitious young men sought employment in either the coach 
or freight service. It was the writer's good fortune to know 
some of these drivers in their later days and his early ones, espe- 
cially freight drivers ; and as they have not been immortalized in 
song and story to such an extent as coach drivers, some attention 
will be paid to them here. 

Many merchants in interior towns maintained their own freight 
service. The motive power, generally was horse-flesh. The 
wagons were large and roomy and, when loaded, required from four 
to eight horses to haul them. Not only did these teams transport 
merchandise for the firms owning them, but for smaller merchants 
along the way. From Zadoc Long's diary, of the date of January 
7, 1835, one learns that the father of Governor John D. Long, who 
was a merchant in Buckfield at that time, sent four tons of dried 
apple to Portland, receiving four and one-half cents a povmd for the 
product. 

At the time of the opening of roads, manufacturing had begun in 
a small way, and the products of mills, kilns and shops found way 
to Portland by these conveyances. Some of the smaller products 
went by the regular freight wagons, but lumbermen generally 
maintained teams of their own. There is evidence to believe that 
a large portion of the lumber wagons were hauled by oxen. It 
seems that the sons of Jacob Stevens, who settled in Turner in 
1789, built a saw mill in Auburn, (or what ,was known at that time 
as Bakerstown or Poland) still known as Stevens' Mills, and manu- 
factured lumber for the domestic and export trade. The latter 
was hauled to Portland with oxen according to the story told the 
writer in his younger days by John Stevens, then an old man, who 



14 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

had been one of the drivers. The distance was thirty-six miles. 
j\Ir. Stevens said this means of transportation was not uncommon 
before 1850. 

Another freight driver, better known to the writer than any 
other, Samuel I). Waterman, of Oxford, took up this occupation 
before he was twenty years old. First he drove a freight wagon 
from West Minot to Portland, then from Buckfield to that seaport. 
At the latter place he was in the employ of Ephraim Atwood, an 
old time merchant of Buckfield. His wagon was hauled by eight 
horses. Fie had unusual skill in training horses and used no 
reins in guiding his animals, they obeying his vocal commands much 
as oxen do. 

One of Mr. Waterman's fellow drivers, William Stone, was a 
dashy fellow and a 'general favorite with the servants around hotels 
or "tarvans," as they were then called, at which they stopped for 
meals or lodgings. 

A brief description of him will show the typical teamster of that 
day. He was a dandy in dress, wearing "store clothes" in an age 
when the general dress was homespun. In cold weather he wore a 
thick overcoat of fancy tailoring, and protected his hands at all 
times with gloves. Even when caring for his horses he affected 
style by covering and protecting his clothes with a long frock, 
gathered in at the waist by a red sash. 

The driver of that day was a marked man. He was a traveler 
when most people remained at home. He saw and heard things un- 
known to rural inhabitants. He almost always developed into a 
good story-teller and was welcomed at barroom firesides on that 
account. If he possessed imagination he could rival Munchausen 
in this art. for people who knew little of the outside world could 
dis])ute nothing however improbable, and there was always a temp- 
tation to see how much they would swallow. In short, the stage 
and freight driver of that day in ]\Iaine occupied the same position 
in social life his western counterpart did a generation or two later. 
Mark Twain's description of the latter ]iroduct in "Roughing It" 
can well a}>ply to the earlier members of the craft in Maine. He 
says: 

The sta^e driver was a hero — a great shining dignitary — the world's favor- 
ite son — tlie env\- of the people — the observed of nations. When they 
speak to him, they receive his insolent silence meekly, as being the proper 
conduct of so great a man ; when he opens his lips they hang on his words 
with admiration. 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD 



In the older days, shipmasters became merchants, owning their 
own vessels, and buying- and selling their own cargoes. Such men 
were Captains Joseph Decker and Samuel Clough, of Wiscasset, 
and Captain William Ladd, of Minot. In like manner freight 
drivers became inland merchants, buying the freight they carried 
and selling to small store keepers in the interior. Mr. Waterman 
and Mr. Stone entered this business. They even traveled into Can- 
ada with lines of goods. 

The golden period of the passenger coach and the freight wagon 
was between the years 1840 and 1850. In 1846 Grovenor Water- 
house opened a daily stage line between Paris and Portland. The 
same year the British mail was carried from Portland to Montreal 
in twenty-six hours as against a previous record of thirty-two 
hours. Even before the first date Maine people had begun to 
dream of different and faster methods of transportation. 

Those living on waterways had always enjoyed an advantage in 
this respect, as sailing vessels had been able to work their way 
some miles into the interior, and in 1807 Robert Fulton, by intro- 
ducing steam power into their hulls, had greatly assisted develop- 
ment along their banks. The first coast steamboat appeared in 
Portland in 1823 and the next year one was placed in the Kennebec 
River. The locomotive with its railed tracks was not far behind. 
The first railroad was opened in England in 1825. the first one in 
the United States in 1828 and the first one in Maine in 1836. These 
innovations did not take instant hold of the people for it required 
capital to build and operate them, and a considerable volume of 
commerce to maintain them when built. The first railroads were 
of necessity a long time investment. 

As water transportation presented fewer difficulties in early days, 
schemes for their improvement occupied public attention first. 
Where navigable rivers did not exist canals were advocated. 

In the western part of Maine, of which I am writing, the earliest 
dream" of improved transportation was to connect its numerous 
lakes with canals. This idea was considered as early as 1820, and 
one of the acts of the first legislature of Maine was to charter The 
Cumberland and Oxford Canal Company. The scheme contem- 
plated connecting lakes as far north as Waterford. Work was 
begun on this artificial waterway in 1828, and completed as far 'aS 
Sebago Fake in 1831. With exception of improvements in the 
Songo River, that was as far as it ever got, as the railroad fever 



i6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

took full possession of the people about this time. The canal was 
discontinued in 1875. 

Local historians of western Maine, occasionally disclose the 
workings of this new germ. The first mention found is in 1835, 
When a railroad connecting Portland with Montreal was agitated. 
Surveys were made that year and committees were appointed in 
small towns to influence the surveyors, if possible, to lay out the 
line through their' respective towns. In 1837 the Portland, Saco 
and Portsmouth Railroad was chartered and the road completed in 
1842. The Grand Trunk Railway, or Atlantic &'St. Lawrence Rail- 
road as it was then called, was chartered in 1845, as was also the 
Portland & Kennebec Railroad and the Maine Central. Work was 
begun on these roads at once. 

It was then that the old stage coach gave up its life in a blaze 
of glory. There was competition between Portland and Bos- 
ton as a terminal for the new railroad, and advocates for each 
city had rival routes surveyed, and in January, 1846, expresses, 
carrying mail were started from each city. Orin Hobbs, dressed, 
as the writer has been informed, in a blue suit, with silver quarter 
dollars as buttons on the coat and silver dimes as buttons on the 
waistcoat, took the Portland express as far as Norway, when it 
was taken by Grovenor Waterhouse as far as Canaan, Vermont, 
where it was taken by another messenger. The first stage was 
made in two hours and forty-five minutes, the second in eleven 
hours, and the whole distance between Portland and Montreal, some 
more than three hundred miles, in twenty-six hours, shortening 
any previous record by six hours. So the building of The Portland 
& St. Lawrence Railroad was decided. It was begun in 1845 and 
completed in 1853. 

The building of railroads sounded the knell of long-distance 
staging in Maine: and the old ideal coachmen of those times be- 
came the first conductors on the railroads. The two drivers men- 
tioned above, Hobbs and Waterhouse, served on the first Atlantic 
& St. Lawrence trains. 

The building of railroads was an incentive to manufacturing, and 
the beginning of modern industry dates from that time. The con- 
struction of railroads, dams and buildings opened another industry 
by calling for explosives for cleveing rocks, and powder mills came 
into existence. They had been in existence in a small way for 
some time, but the increased demand for explosives increased the 



SOME KNIGHTS OF THE ROAD 17 

output. This opened a new field for freight drivers, for this ma- 
terial had to be transported wherever railroads or towns were build- 
ing, or quarries opened. This gave a romance to the business not 
there before, because of the danger involved. Air Waterman, 
mentioned above and Benjamin Chandler Rawson, of Paris, were 
among those who entered this business and many adventures and 
narrow escapes did they experience, such as traveling through forest 
fires, etc., on the roads delivering these explosives. They were 
employed by Messrs. Marble & Hubbard, of Paris, who owned 
powder mills situated at North Buckfield. 

The range of their travels were in northern New Hampshire and 
Vermont, where railroads were building, and in central and south- 
ern Maine. In the latter state, not only were railroads supplied, 
but the lime quarries of Rockland and the slate quarries of Brown- 
ville and Monson, then in the beginning of operations. 

This transportation was far from easy, for many of the roads 
traveled were little better than wood trails. If one desires an ade- 
quate description of them, one only has to read Henry D. Thoreau's 
"Maine Woods," about excursions made at this time. Of the prim- 
itiveness of the times, Thoreau can be quoted. Of Monson, Mr. 
\\'aterman's northern point, he has this to say : "At a fork in the 
road between Abbott and Monson, about twenty miles from Moose- 
head Lake, I saw a guide-post surmounted by a pair of moose- 
horns, spreading four or five feet, with the word Monson painted 
on one blade." 

Considering the ever possible pyrotechnic display, this might be 
called, periiaps, the brilliant exit of the freight service, for in a few 
years the long-distance freight wagon had disappeared. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF MAINE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

At the annual meeting of the Maine Historical Societ\' held at Brunswick 
Tuesday, June 18, 1918, officers for the coming year were elected as follows: 
President, James P. Baxter; vice president, Dr. Henry S. Burrage; treas- 
urer, Fritz N. Jordan: recording secretary, Charles T. Libby ; corresponding 
secretarj^, W. D. Patterson, librarian, Evelyn L. Gilmore ; standing com- 
mittee, Prentice C. Manning, Judge George A. Emery of Saco, Judge George 
E. Bird, Judge Clarence Hale, Frederick D. Conant, Charles A. Flagg, 
Edward D. Noyes (in place of Henry Deering, deceased) Edward .A.. Butler 
of Rockland (in place of General Selden Connor, deceased.) 

The report of Evelyn L. Gilmore, the librarian, v/as important and 
exceptionally interesting and entertaining. Her work is prol)ably not e.xcelled 
by any one in a similar position in New England. 



i8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

(Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor (Maine) 

Public Library.) 

(Continued from page 266, Vol. 5.) 



List. 



Name. 



Service 



Rank. 



Age. 



County. 



Remarks. 



'35c 



'40 
'35d 



'3oe 
'35d 



'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'20 

'35c 

'40 

1792 

1794 
'20 

'35c 

'35d 
'40 
'40 
'35c 

'35a 



'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'3od 

'35c 

'35d 

•40 

'20 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

•40 



Beal, Daniel 

Beal, Elizabeth J. 
Beal, Job 



Beal, Joseph . 
Beales, Isaac. 



Beall, Benjamin. 
lieals, Lydia. . . . 
Bean, Daniel . . . . 
Bean, Ebenezer . 
Bean, Ebenezer . 
Bean, James R. . 
Bean, John 



Bean, John 

Bean, Jonathan . 



Bean, Josiah. . . 
Bean, Margaret . 
Bean, Oliver . . . 
Bean, Samuel . . 



Beans, John . 



Bearce, Eleniezer. . 

Bearce, Gideon. . . . 

Bearce, Levi 

Beckey, Magnus.., 

Beckford, William . 
Beckler, Daniel . . . 
Beedle, Henry . . . . 



Becman, .lohn . . 
Belcher, Supply. 



Bemis, Jacob 

Bemis, Thaddeus. 



Mass. line. 



Mass. mil . 
Mass.. line , 
Mass. mil . 

N. H. line. 



Mass. line. 

R. I 

Mass. line. 



3dN.H.regt. 



3d N. H.regt. 
N. H 



Mass. line. 
N. H.line. 



R. I. line. . 
N. H. line. 



Mass. 
Mass. 



line . . 
state. 



Mass 

N. H. 

Mass. 
Mass. 
Mass. 



me. . . 

line . . 

mil . . 
line . . 
state. 



Mass . 
Mass. 



line. 
Mass. line . 



Mass. line. 



Benjamin, Samuel 
Benner, Christopher 



Mass. 
Mass. 



line . 
line. 



Private. . 



Private and 

Sergeant. 

Private . . . 

Fifer, mat- 
ross and 
drummer 

Private. . . . 



Private. , 
Private. . 
Private. . 



Corporal . 

Corporal. 
Private. . 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 

Liout . . 
Marine. 



Private. . . 

Private. . . 

Private. . . 
Private . . . 
Private. . . 



Private. . . . 

Priv'te and 

Sergeant 

Private. . . . 



Private. . . 



Lieut. . . 
Private. . 



72 Cumberland . 

78'Cumberland . 
74, Cumberland . 



77jWaldo. . . . 
74 Kennebec. 



('20) Died Sept. 4, 

1825. 
Res. Freeport. 



('20) Died Oct. 29,. 
1830. 



76 Lincoln ('20) d. July 26, 1823 



Kennebec. 
Oxford. 



York . 
York. 



.Oxford . 



75 Kennebec. 



Res. Greene. 



Died 1824. 

('35a) Res. Hollis. 

Wounded 1779. Pen- 
sioned 1789. 

Res. Washington. 

('31b)same as Beans, 
J. 

('20) d. Nov. 
1826. 

('20, '31b). 



19, 



Oxford Res. Bethel 



Kennebec. 
Lincoln . . . 



Kennebec . 



Lincoln . 



Oxford . 



14, 



Res. Readfield. 
('20) d. Aug 

1818. 

Transf. from Mass. 
1819. Same as Bean, 

J. d. Nov. 12, 1832 
('28 as Ebenezer) 

d. May 3, 1827 



Somerset . 



82 Oxford AsBearseRes. Hebron 

Oxford i('20) d. Dec. 17, 

1826. 
('20 as Becklev). d. 
May 19, 1824. 
York. 

Oxford j('20)d.Sept.4, 1833. 

York j 

York I Res. .S. Berwick. 

Same as Buman ? 
Kennebec. . 



82 



76 Cumberland. ('20). 

83 Cumberland. |Res. Pownal. 
75 Oxford ('20). 

81 Oxford Res. Frveburg. 

82|Oxford ('20, '31b). 

78 Washington.. I ('20). 

84 Washington. . jRes. Donnytville. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSlOxXERS IN MAINE 19 



List 



Rank. 



'35c 

'40 

'3oc 

'3oc 

'3.5c 

'35cl 

'40 

'3od 

'40 

'40 
'35d 
'Sod 
'35c 
'35d 
'35c 
•40 
'35c 
'40 
'35c 
'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'3od 

'35d 

'35d 

'35d 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

'4C 

'40 

'35d 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'35d 

1794 

1792 

'35a 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'31a 



'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 
'35d 
'35c 

'40 
'35c 
'35c 
'35c 



Benner, Peter. 



Bennet, 
Bennett 
Bennett 
Bennett 
Benson, 
Benson, 
Benson, 
Berdens 



John 

, Andrew. . 
, Moses. . . 
, Samuel.. . 

Ichabod . . 
Jeptha 

Robert . . . 
, Timothy. 



Berry, Abif/nil . . . . 
Berry, George. . . 
Berry, Jonathan. 
Berry, Joseph. . . 
Berry, Josiah. . . . 
Berry, Josiah . . . . 
Berr\ , Josiah .. . . 
Berry, Nathaniel . 

Berry, Pelatiah. . . 
Berry, Thomas. . . 



Berry, Thomas. . 

Berry, Timothy . 
Berry, Timothy. 
Berry, Zebulon. . 



Besse, Jabez . . 
Besse, Joseph . 



Bessee, Ebenezer. . . 

Bett, Amzi 

Bettis, Jeremiah. . . . 

Beveridge, Matthew 
Bibber, James 



Bickford, Benjamin 

Bickford, John 

Bickford, William... 
Bickmore, John . . . . 
Bicknell, Abner . . . . 



Bicknell, Olive. . . 
Bigge, David. . . . 
Billings, Abel . . . 
Billington, Issac. 
Bisbee, Elisha. . . 
Bishop, Enos. . . . 
Bishop, Squire. . 



Bishop, Srjuire, Jr. 



Mass. line . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil . 



Mass. line. . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. state . 
Mass. line. . 



Mass. line . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 



R. I. state. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil . 
Mass. mil . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. mil.. 
Mass. line. 

Mass. mil . 
Mass. mil.. 



Mass. mil. . 
N. H. line. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. mil.. 



Bishop, Squire . 
Bishop, Zadock. 
Bishop, Zadoc. . 
Biter, Peter. . . . 
Black, Henry. . 
Black, Joab. . . . 
Black, Joseph. . 



Black, Josiah. 
Black, Moses . 



Blackington, James 
Blackston, William 
Blackstone, John. . 

Blackslone, Rebecca 
Blackwood, James 

Blair, James 

Blake, Benjamin . 



Mass. mil.. . . 
Mass. mil.. . . 
Mass. line. . . 
Mass. line. . . 
Mass. mil.. . . 
M'Cobb's mil 

regt. 
S. Webb'srgt. 

Blunt's Co.. 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 



Mass. state 



Mass. line. 

Mass. line. 
Mass. mil. 
N. J. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 



Corporal . 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 



Drummer. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private . 
Private. 



Private. 



Private. 
Lieut . . 



Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Priv'te and 
Sergean t 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Lieut . . 
Private. 
Private. 

Private. 



Private. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Private. 



Private. . 

Private. . 
Sergeant. 
Private. . 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



.^ge. 



Count.v. 



Remarks 



72 Kennebec. . , 



Cumberland , 

Waldo 

Cumberland . 
Somerset ... 

Oxford 

Hancock . . . 

York 

York 



York 

Kennebec . . . 

York 

York 

Cumberland. 

Lincoln 

York 

Kennebec . . . 
Kennebec. . . . 
Cumberland 
Lincoln 



Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

York 

Cumberland 
Cumberland 
Kennebec . . 
Kennebec 
Oxford . . 
Oxford . . 
Somerset 
Oxford . . 
York 



Waldo 

Cumberland 
Cumberland 
Kennebec. . . 

York 

Lincoln 

Waldo 

Waldo 

Waldo 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Hancock ... 
Kennebec. . 

Oxford 

Cumberland . 



Kennebec. . 
Kennebec . . 
Kennebec. . , 
Kennebec . . 
Kennebec. . . 

York 

Cumberland 



York. . . . 
York .... 
Hancock . 



Lincoln . . 
Kennebec 
Lincoln.. . 



Lincoln .... 
Washington. 

Lincoln 

Oxford 



('20). d. Sept. 9, 

1833. 
Res. Brunswick. 

r20). 

{'20) d. Feb. 12, 1832 

('20). 

Died Aug. 1, 1S33. 

Res. Brooksville. 

Died July 1, 1833. 

Same as Burdeen. 

Res. S. Berwick. 
Res. York. 
("20, '31b). 

(•20). 
(•20). 

Res. Limerick. . 

(•20). 

Res. Pittston. 
(•20). 

(•28). d. Jan. 27, 
1828. 

Res. Buckfield. 

(•20) 

Res. Cornish. 

Res. Scarborough. 

Res. Wayne. 
(•20). 
Res. Paris. 



(•20 as Bettes). 



Res. N. Yarmouth. 

(•20). 

Res. Lewiston. 

(•20) d. Sept. 4,1832. 

Res. Frankfort. 
Res. Hartford. 



Died Dec. 16, 1829. 
(•20). d. Dec. 4, 1826 

Wounded 1779. Res. 

Washington. 
Wounded 1779. Pen. 

sioned 1792. 

Res. Vassalborough. 

Res. Leeds. 
(•20)d.Mar. 4,1827. 
(•20). 

(•29, 'Sib). 
Rejected on account 

of amount of his 

property. 
(•31a). 

Res. Limington. 
(•20) d. Dec. 22, 

1S29. 
(•20). 

(■20) d. Dec. 20, 

1818. 
Res. Richmond. 
("20) d. -Mar. 1827. 
(•20). 
(•20). 



^20 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age. County. 



Remarks. 



40 Blake, Deborah. 



•35d 
'35d 
I 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'31b 

'35d 



'35c 
'35c 
'31a 



'35d 

'40 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'20 

'35a 

•40 

'35c 

I 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 



'35c 
'35c 

'35c 

'40 

•35c 

'35c 

'40 

'40 

'35d 
'35c 
'35c 

35c 
'35d 
'40 
'35c 
'35c 
'40 
'35c 
'35d 



Blake, James . 
Blake, John. . 



Blanchard, Theoph . 
Blanchard, Timothy 

Blancher, Theophilus 

Blasdell, Daniel . . . 
Blethen, Increase.. 
Blodget, Jonathan. 



Blake, John. . . 
Blake, John. . . 
Blake, John. . . 
Blake, Joseph. 
Blake, Josiah . , 
Blake, Robert. 

Blake, Willing. 



Blanchard, Sarah. 
Blanchard, Seth. . 



Blanchard, Solomon 



Blodget, Jonathan. 



Blue, Hannah. 
Boas, James. . 
Booker, Aaron . 



Boden, Theodore. . 
Bodwell, Ebenezer. 

Boeues, Samuel. . . 



Boice, James 

Bointon, Joseph. . 
Bointon, Pelatiah. 



Bois, John. 



Bold en, John . . 
Bolton, David . 



Bolton, Solomon. 

Bompus, Morris. 
Bond, Jonas .... 



Bonney, Isaac. 



Bonneys, Isaac. . . . 
Booden, Ebe:iezer. 
Booden, Theodore. 



Mass. state . 
N. H. line. . 



Mass. line . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil.. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil.. , 



R. I. mil. 



R. I. line. . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Private. . . . 

Ensign and 

Lieut. 



Private. 



Private. . 
Corporal. 



Private. . 



Priv'te and 
Sergeant. 



Priv'te and 
Art. 



Private. . . . 

Priv'te and 

Sergeant. 

Private. . . . 

Private.. . . 
Private.. . . 
Private. . . . 



70to 
80 
71 

77 & 
79 

86 

72! 
801 
00 
76 
80 1 
82 
87 
72 

78 
86 
74 
81 
72 

77 

79 

70 

86 
76 



N. H. line. . .[Private.. 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 



Va. line . . . 
N. H.line. 
Mass. line. 



N. H. line. 



Va. line . . . 
Mass. line . 



Mass. line . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 



Mass. line. 
R. Mine.. 
Mass. line. 



N. H.line. 
Mass. line. 



Booffee, Thomas 
Booker, Aaron . . 
Booker, Anna . . . 

Booker, Isaiah ' Mass. line 

Booker, Josiah Mass. line 

ri>-:lhby, ■ Uznheth 

Boot'iby, William. . Mass. line 
Bornhumcn, Jacob. . Mass. mil. 



'40 'Boster, Jonathan . 



Private. 



Private. . 
Corporal. 



Private. . . 

Mariner. . 
Private. . , 
Private. . 



Private. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 

Ensign. . 
Private. . 



Private. . 
Private. . 



Private.. . . 

Priv'te and 

marine. 



'35d Boston, Elijah Mass. line. 

'35dj Boston, Shcbrufl. . . Mass. mil.. 
'35d Boston, Thomas.. . . Mass. line. 



Private. . 
Private.. 
Private. . 



64 



Cumberland 

Cumberland 
Penobscot . . 

Penobscot . . 
Kennebec. . . 
Kennebec. . . 
Cumberland 
Cumberland 
Franklin. . . . 
Kennebec. . . 
Kennebec. . . 
Lincoln .... 



Lincoln 

Lincoln .... 
Cumberland 
Cumberland 
Lincoln .... 



Lincoln . 
Lincoln. 
Lincoln. 



Lincoln.. . 
Somerset . 



Oxford 

Oxford 

Kennebec. . 
Cumberland 
York 



Oxford . 
Oxford . 
Lincoln. 



York 

Oxford . . . 
Kennebec. 



Somerset . 



Lincoln. . 
Kennebec. 



78 Penobscot . . 
82 Penobscot. . 

78 Oxford 

74 Washington. 
80,W:isl]iiigton. 
8.j Oxford 



Oxford . . . . 
Hancock . . 
Penobscot . 



Lincoln.. . 

York 

Lincoln. . . 
Somerset . 
Kennebec. 
York 

York 

Lincoln.. . 



York. 

York. 
York. 
York. 



Res. Gorham. 



("20, '31b). 

Res. Brewer. 

(■20). 

Res. Gardiner. 

('20). 

Res. Phillips. 

Res. Fayette. 

('20). 

Res. Warren. 
Res. Richmond. 

Res. N. Yarmouth. 



Res. Dresden. 
Same as Blancher. 
('20, '31b). 

('20) same as Blanch 
ard. 

('20) d. Feb. 4, 1829. 

(■20). 

Reg't. not on Con- 
tinental establish- 
ment. 

Res. Gilead. 
Res. Monmouth. 
('20 as Boaz). 
Same as Booker, A. 

Res. York. 
Same as Booden, T. 
From Mass. in 1817. 
Res. Andover. 
Misspelled Rogues. 

(•20). 
('20 ship "Ranger"). 
Same as Boynton, J. 
('20 as Boynton, P.) 

Same as Boying- 

ton, P. ? 
('20) d. Mar. 16, 

1833. 
('20). 
Same as Botton ? d. 

Feb. 4, 1828. 



Res. Orrington. 
Same as Bumfries ? 



Res. Robbinston. 
Res. Sumner. Same 

as following ? 
Same as preceding ? 

Same as Boden, T. 
and as Bow den, T? 
(•20) d. Jan. 10, 1820 
Same as Booker, A. 
Re.*. Richmond, 
d. Feb. 27, 1833. 
<'20) d. Feb. 27, 1823 
Res. Limerick. 
(•20. 31b). 
Same as Burnheimer. 



Same as Baston, J. ? 
Res. Kenncbunk. 
('20, '31b). 

Same as Baston, T. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 21 



List. 


Name. 


Service 


Rank. 


Age. 


County. 


Remarks. 


'40 ! 






77 
74 
79 
76 


York 

Washington. . 
Washington. , 
Somerset .... 


Res. Kennebunkport 

('20). 

Res. Dennysville. 

(■20). 


'35c Bosworth, Daniel. . . 
•40 1 


Mass. line. . . 


Private.. . . 


'35c 
'20 


Bosworth, Jonathan 

Botton, David 

Bouden, Amos 

Boulter, Nathaniel. . 

Bourne, John 

Bowden, Amos 


Mass. line. . . 

Mass 

Mass 

Mass 

Mass. mil . . . 
Mass line. . . . 


Private. . . 


'20 










'20 










'3od 
'35c 

'40 


Private. . . 
Private. . . . 


74 
62 

76 

76 
77 
75 


York 

Hancock 

Hancock . . . . 

Waldo 

Waldo 

Penobscot . . . 


Same as Bouden, A. 
d. Dec. 23. 1823. 


'40 








Res. Penobscot. 


'40 










'35c 
'20 


Bowers, Benjamin. . 

Bowing, Jabish 

Bowing, Jabish 


Mass. line . . . 

N. H 

Mass. line. . . 


Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 


Transf. from Cale- 
donia Co. Vt. 1825 


'35c 
'40 


Private. . . . 


77 
82 
71 
77 
81 

82 


Somerset .... 
Somerset .... 
Washington. . 
Washington. . 
Kennebec . . . 

Somerset .... 




'35c 
'40 


Bowker, Levi 

Boyd, Samuel 


Mass. line. . . 


Private. . . . 


('20). 


'35d 
'40 


Mass. line . . . 


Priv'te and 
Drummer 




'28 








Res. Mercer. 


'29 


Boynton, Joseph. . . 

Boynton, Joseph. . . . 

Bracey, James 

Bracket, Joshua. . . . 
Bracket, Joshua. . . . 
Bracket, Josiah 

Bracket, Peter 

Bracket, William. . . 

Brackett, James. . . . 


N. H. line. .. 

3d N. H. line. 
Mass. line. . . 
Mass. state. . 
Mass. mil. . . . 
Mass. line. . . 

Mass. line. . . 
Mass. state . . 

Mass. mil.. . . 










'35e 
'35c 
'35d 
'35d 
'35c 

'35d 
'35d 

'35d 
'40 


Lieut 

Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 

Pvt. of Art. 

Priv'te and 

Sergeant 

Private. . . . 


91 
76 
72 
64 

78 
82 

70 
76 
83 
79 
82 

78 


York 

York 

York 

York 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 
Oxford 

Oxford 

Franklin 

Cumberland 
Cumberland 
York 

York 


ton, J. 

(■20). 

Same as Brackett, J. 

Same as Brackett, J. 

Same as Brackett, J. 

d. Aug. 8, 1820. 

Same as Brakett, 
W. 

("20). 


'35d 
'40 


Brackett, John 


Mass. line. . . 


Private. . . . 


('20, '31b). 


'40 










• '40 








Res. Acton. 


'20 








Res. Limington. 


'35d 
'40 


Brackett, Nathan.. . 


Mass. state. . 


Private. . . . 


80 
55 
89 

77 

73 
76 
82 
89 
72 
74 


Oxford 

Kennebec. . . . 

York 

Kennebec. . . . 

Lincoln 

Cumberland 
Cumlierhuid 
Kennebec . . . 
Kennebec. . . 
Franklin 


Res. Clinton 


'35d 
'35d 

'35c 
'35d 
'40 


Bradan, Robert. . . . 
Bradbury, Paul. . . . 

Bradford, Elijah.... 
Bradford, Peabody. 


Mass. state. . 
Mass. line. . . 

Mass. line. . . 
Mass. line. . . 


Private. . . . 
Priv'te and 
Corporal 
Private. . . . 
Corporal.. . 


Died Jan. 4, 1833. 

Died Nov. 23, 1829. 

(■20). 

Re* Minot 


'35d 
'35d 
'40 


Bradford. Peter. . . . 
Bradley, Samuel.. . . 


Mass. mil.. . . 
Mass. line. . . 


Sergeant.. . 
Private. . . . 


Died Jan. 11, 1834. 


1792 


Bradstreet, Dudley. 
Brag, Nicholas 


Invalid's regt 

Col. Francis' 

regt 

Mass. line, . . 






1794 








sioned 1792. 
Res. Portland. 


'35c 
'40 


Private. . . . 


82 
86 

74 
83 

78 

99 

86 

77 

74 
80 
71 
76 


Cumberland 
York 

Penobscot . . . 
Penobscot . . . 
Oxford 

York 

York 

York 

Cumberland 
Cumberland 

York 

Kennebec. . . . 


Same as Bray, N. ? 


'35c 
'40 


Bragdon, Aaron. . . . 

Bragdon, Arthur . . . 

Bragdon, Daniel. . . . 
Bragdon, Ezekiel . . . 


Mass. line. . . 


Private. . . . 


Same as Bragdon, 
(■20) d. Oct. 22, 1S32 


'35d 

'35c 
'35c 

'35c 


Mass. line. . . 

Mass. line . . . 
Mass. line. . . 


Priv'te and 

Corporal 

Private. . . . 

Private. . . . 

Private 

Private. . . . 


('20, '31b). 

("20) d. 1821. 

("20) d. June 19, 

1827. 


'35c 
'40 


Bragdon, John, 2d . . 


Mass. line. . . 


den, J. ? 

(•20). 


'35d 
'35c 


Bragdon, John 

Bragg, Joab 


Mass. line . . . 
Mass. line . . . 


Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 


(•20). 



22 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List 



Name 



Service. 



Rank. 



'40 
'35d 



Brapo, Lydia .... 
Brainard, Church. 



Brakett, William. 



'35d 

'40 

'3oc 

1794 

'35c 

'40 

'40 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'40 

'40 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

•35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35e 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

•35c 



Brand, Jeremiah.. . . 
Branscomb, Rebecca. 
Branscum, Charles.. 



Brawn, Daniel , 
Bray, Joseph. . . 
Bray, Nicholas. 



Mass. line . . . 

Col. E.Phin- 
ney's mil. rgt 
Mass. line. . . 



Breck, Patience. . . 
Breman, Aaron. . . 

Breth, Amzi 

Brewster, Darius. 



Brewster, Lucy . . . 
Bridgeham, John. 



Bridges, Daniel.. . 
Bridges, Edmund. 
Bridgham, John. . 



Brid'jham, Lucy. . . 
Bridgham, Samuel. 
Bridgham, William. 

Briggs, Abner 

Briggs, Aden 

Briggs, Jesse 

Briggs, Naomi. . . . 
Briggs, Samuel. . . . 
Briggs, William . . . 

Brimigion, Thomas 

Briniyion, Thomas. 



Britt, John 

Britton, John. . . . 
Brocklebank, Joseph 
Brooks, Samuel. . . 
Brooks, Sanmel, 2d 
Brooks, Widoic of Sa 
Brooks, Solomon 
Brooks, William. 
Brown, Amos . . , 
Brown, Amos, 2d 
Brown, Andrew. 
Brown, Andrew . 
Brown, Andrew . 
Bi own, Asennth . 
Brown, Cyril. . . . 



N. H. state. 



Mass. mil.. 



Mass. line. 



Cont. navy . 



Mass. line. 
N. H. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. mil.. 
R. I. line. . 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 



Md. line.. . . 
4th Va. line. 
Mass. mil.. . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. line. . 

rnuel 

Mass. line. . 
Mass. mil. . . 
Mass. line. . 
Mass. line . . 
Mass. line . . 



Priv'te and 
marine 



Private. . , 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Private. 



Seaman . 



Sergt. and 

Ensign 
Private. . 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Private. . 
Captain . 



Brown, Cyril. . . 
Brown, David. . 
Brown, Enoch . 
Brown, Enoch . 
Brown, Ezekiel. 
Brown, Ezekiel. 



Brown, Jacob. . . . 
Brown, Jacob .... 
Brown, James. . . . 
Brown, James. . . . 
Brown, James. . . . 
Brown, James, 2d. 
Brown, Jeremiah. 



Mass. state. 
Miiss. mil.. . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Va. line. . . 
Mass. mil.. 



Private. . . 
Private. . . 
Private. . . 
Sergeant.. 
Private. . . 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 



Private. 



Priv'te and 
Sergeant 



Private. . 
Private. . 



Surgeon. 
Suigeon. 



Private. . 
Private. . 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Age. 



County. 



Remarks. 



Kennebec. 
Kennebec 



Oxford . 



75 
71 
79 
70 
76 
89 
80 
&74 
72 
79 
71 
77 
86 

74 
71 
78 
71 
67 
75 
78 
70 
83 

79 

85 



Lincoln. . 
Hancock . 
Hancock . 



Somerset ... 
Somerset. . . 
Cumberland 

Kennebec. . . 
Cumberland. 

Oxford 

Lincoln 

Lincoln .... 

Waldo 

Cumberland 



York 

York 

Hancock . . . 
Hancock . . . 
Cumberland 

Cumberland 

Oxford 

Cumberland 
Cumberland 
Somerset ... 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Somerset. . . 
Kennebec. . 



Lincoln. 
Lincoln . 



Kennebec. . 

Lincoln 

Cumberland 

York 

Oxford 

Oxford 

York 

York 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Lincoln 

Kennebec . . 
Cumberland 

Waldo 

Hancock . . . 



84 Waldo 

80 Tiincoln 

82 Peiicib.>^cot. . 
SO !'i^c:it;L(|uis. 
90 Kcnndjcc. . 
7Si Hanccck . . 



76! Lincoln 

73 Oxford 

83: York 

74|York 

74' Lincoln .... 

74 I York 

74 1 Kennebec. . . 
79| Kennebec. . . 
70 CuinVierland 

77 Vork 

74 Kennebec. . 



Res. Vassalborough. 



Same as Bracket, 
W. Res. Dixfield 
or Peru. 

Res. Mt. Desert. 
('20 as Branscom). 

d. Sept. 18, 1825. 
Wounded 1777. Res. 

York. 
(•20). 

Res. Anson. 
Res. Harrison. ('20). 

Same as Brag, N.? 
Res. China. 

Res. Paris. 
1 

'Res. Thomaston. 
'Res. Camden. 

Same as Bridgham,. 

1 J- 
I ('20). 

Res. York, 
!('20). 

Res. Castine. 

('20) Same as Bridge 
ham. Res. Minot. 

Res. Minot. 

('20 as Bridgman.) 

(20). 

('20) d. Feb. 14, 1828 
('20) d. Feb. 8, 1833. 
Res. Paris. 

('20) d. Aug. 11, 
1819. H- -^r^ 

('20) same as Brin- 
iyion. 

Same as Brimigion. 
Res. Bowdoin. 

(•20) d. 1833. 



('20) d. June, 1826. 
('20) d. Apr. 1825. 
Res. Porter. 



('20) d. Dec 1827. 
('20) d. Jan. 11, 1826 

Res. Litchfield. 

(•20). 

Res. Palermo. 

('31a as Cyrel). 

Res. Searsmont. 

('20). 

('20). 

Res. Sebec 

('20, '31b as private) 

Perhaps identical 

with iireceding. 
('20) d. Dec 2, 1S31? 
Died Dec. 2, 1831 "? 
Res. Parsonsfield. 
(•20). 

Died Jan. 28, 1827. 
(■20). 

Res. Winthrop. 

('20). 

(•20). 

Died Oct. 22, 1822. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 



23 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



Age. 



County. 



Remarks. 



•3.5d 
'40 
'40 
'35c 
'40 
'28 
'3oc 
'35d 
'40 
'3.5d 
'40 
'35c 
'35c 
'40 
'35c 
'35d 
'28 
'35d 
'40 
'35c 
■35d 
'35d 

'40 

•35c 

'31a 

'35c 

'20 

'40 

'40 
'40 
'35<> 

'35d 

'35d 



'40 
'35c 

'40 
'35d 

'35c 
•35d 

'40 
'35c 

'20 

'35c 

'40 



Brown, .Jonathan. . . 
Brown, .Jonathan. . . 

Brown, Mary 

Brown, Moody 

Brown, Moody 

Brown, I^eter Wyer. 
Brown, Peter W. . . . 
Brown, Samuel 



Brown , Thaddeus 



Mass. line. . 



Mass. line . 



Ensign . 
Mass. line. . . Ensign. 
Mass. line. . . Private. 



Mass. mil. 



Brown, Thomas. 
Brown, William. . 
Brown, William . 
Brownwell , Ichabod 
Bruckett, James. 
Bryan Joseph . . . 
Bryant , Abijah . . 
Bryant, Abijah . . 
Bryant , Daniel. . 
Bryant , John . . . 
Bryant, Joseph. . 



Cont. navy , 
Mass. line. . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. state . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. mil . 
Mass. mil. . 



Bryant. Stephen. . 

Buck, Moses 

Buman, John . . . . 
Bumfries, Morris. 
Bumps, Shubal. . . 



Bumpus, Hannah. 
Bum^'US, Huhlah.. 
Bumpus, Shubael. . 



Burbank, Eleazer. 
Burbank, John . . . 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass 



Mariner. 
Private.. 



Private. . . . 
Pvt.of Art 
2d Lieut. . 
Private. . . . 



Private., . 

Pvt of Art 

Priv'te and 

Q. M. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Lincoln . . . 
Lincoln. . . 
Ivennebec . 
Oxford . . . 
York 



Cumberland 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Oxford 

York 

79 Lincoln 

80! Lincoln .... 
SSjKennebec. . 
79iCumberland 



74|Oxford 

79|Oxfcrd 

75lYork 

69 Washington. 
75 Cumberland 



Cumberland 
York 



70 Kennebec. 



Burdeen, Timothy. 



Burgese, K eziah . 
Burgess, David. . 



Burgess, Edward . . 
Burgess, Jonathan. 



Burkman, Thomas. 

Burkmar, Thomas. 

Burnell, .John 

Burnheimer, Jacob. 



35d Burr, Daniel . 



'31b 
'35c 
'35d 

'35c 
'40 
'35d 
'35d 

'35d 
'40 
'40 



'35c 
'35e 
'35d 
'35d 
'35c 



Burr, David 

Burr, Joseph 

Burrell, Humphrey 



Burrell, John. . . 
Burrill, John. . . . 
Burrill, Noah . . . 
Burton, Thomas. 



Burton, William. 
Bussel, Isaac. . . . 



Bussell, Isaac 

Bussell, Isaac 

Bussell, Jonathan. . 
Butland, Jesse. . . . 
Butland, Nathaniel 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 



Mass. St. navy 
Mass. state. . 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 



Conn 

Mass. line . 



Filer 

Musician . . 

Mariner, 
Sergt. and 
Master 
at Arms 



Private. 



Private. . . . 

Private. . . . 
Priv'te and 
Sgt. Maj. 



Lieut . 



Lieut . 
Private. 



Mass. line. . . I Private. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. mil . 



Mass. state. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 
Mass. mil.. 
Mass. mil.. 
Mass. line. 



Waldo . 

Oxford . 
Oxford . 
Waldo. 



Kennebec. 
York 



88 York. 
70; York. 



SOi Kennebec. 
72 Somei'set . 



85 

75 & 

73 

81 
82 



72 



Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Pvt. Gun- 
ner & Corp. 
Private. . . . 



Sergeant. . . 

Pvt. Corp. 

& Lieut. 

Private. . . . 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Kennebec. 
Kennebec. 



Kennebec. 
Hancock. . 



Somerset. 
Lincoln . . 



Kennebec. 



Kennebec. . 
Somerset . . . 

Penobscot. . 
Piscataquis. 
Somerset. . . 
Lincoln 



Lincoln 

Lincoln 

Washington. 



63: Washington. 

Washington. 

73 j Kennebec. . 

77 York 

84 York 



Res. Bowdoinhani. 

Res. Monmouth. 

(■20). 

Res. Cornish. 

('20)d.Feb. 28, 1830 

('20). 

Res. Oxford. 

Res. Waterford. 
('20,"Dean" frigate) 
('20). 
Res. Bath. 
Died 1823. 

Invalided. 

Res. Hartford. 

('20). 

.('31a). 



Res. Baldwin. 

('20) d. 1823. 

Deserted. 

Same as Beeman ? 

Same as Bompus.M? 

Same as Bumpus, S. 

Res. Thorndike. 
Res. Hebron. 
Res. Paris. 
('20) same as Bumps 

S. 
('20, '31b as Ebe 

nezer.) 
('20 Ship "Good 

Richard" '31b.) 



Res. Lyman. 

('20) Same as Ber- 

dens, T. 
Res. Wayne. 
('20, '31b) d. 

11, 1832. 
('20) d.Jan. 12, 1831 
(■20). 



Nc 



Res. Vassalborough. 
Same as following ? 

d. May, 1826 
Same as preceding ? 
('20) d.Jan. 14, 1823 
Same as Bornhumen. 

Res. Waldoboro. 
('20) d. Mar. 15. 

1834. 
Same as preceding. 
(■20). 
(■20). 

(■20). 

Res. Sangerville. 

('20 as Burrell). 



Res. Cushing. 

('20) same as Bus- 
sell, I. ? Res. Co- 
lumbia. 

Same as Bussel, I. ? 



('20 as Nathan) d. 
Feb. 18, 1834. 



24 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List 



Name. 



Service 



Butler, Nathaniel . 
Butler, Nathaniel, . 
Butler, Phineas. . . . 



'35di Butler, Moses. 

'35c 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 
'35d 
'35d 
'35d 

'35d 
'35c 



Butman, Benjamin. 
Butterfield, Jesse. . 



Butterfield, Jesse. 
Buxton, William.. 
Buzzell, James . . . 
Byram, Ebenezer . 



Byram, Jonathan . 
Byram, Melzar. . . 



Mass. state . 
Mass. line . . 
Mass. mil.. . 
Mass. line. . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil.. 
Mass. mil.. 
Mass. line. 

Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Rank. 



Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 



Private 
Corp. and 
Sgt.at arms 



Private. . . 
Drummer. 
Private. . . 

Private. . . 
Private. . . 



Age. 



County. 



Hancock . . . 
Cumberland 

York 

Lincoln 

Lincoln 

Penobscot . . 
Kennebec. . 

Franklin.. . . 
Cumberland 

York , 

Kennebec. . . 

Cumberland 
Cumberland 



Remarks. 



Died May 21, 1824. 

('20). 

Res. Thomaston. 

{'20) ('35d). 



Res. Farmington. 



r31b) d. Nov. 27, 
1833. 

('20). 
('20). 




Maine's Montpelier. 



MAINE'S MONTPELIER. 



In the village of Thomaston, Maine, near the Maine Central 
railroad station stands a large boulder, one side of which has been 
hewn to a smooth surface and bears this inscription : — 

Montpelier. The home of Gen. Henry Knox, first secretary of war, stood 
on the brow of this hill overlooking the bay, from 1793 to 1871. 

It is the last memento of a once magnificent mansion. It was 
the home of one of the famous generals of the American Revolution. 

This, the most precious relic of that revolution, or of any historic 
period that Maine ever had was sacrificed to commercial interests. 
Its destruction was a shame. It was a disgrace to her fair name. 
It was an outrage upon her highest ideals and a crime against 
patriotism. 



AUGUSTINE SIMMONS 2^ 



Augustine Simmons 

By Elmer W. Sawyer. 

Judge Augustine Simmons was born at Topsham, Maine, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1849. His parents were James D. and Ann C. (Rogers) 
Simmons. James D. Simmons was a lawyer and practiced in 
Brunswick and Bath. It is probably due to this early environment 
that Judge 'Simmons also selected the law as his profession. 

James Simmons moved his family to Brunswick in 1852. From 
that time until his death Judge Simmons considered Brunswick his 
"home town." It was there that he spent his boyhood. It was 
there that he received his early education. All through his life he 
kept up his intimate acquaintance with Brunswick people. 

In 1866 he left the public schools of Brunswick and under the 
instruction of Rev. A. D. Wheeler began to prepare himself for 
college. In 1867 he entered Bowdoin College. In 1869 he was 
compelled to leave Bowdoin in order to earn money to complete his 
education. It was not until 1881 that he was graduated from col- 
lege. In the meantime he had studied a short time at Bates College 
and had completed the work required at Bowdoin. In 1881 he was 
given a diploma which made him a graduate of Bowdoin with the 
class in which he commenced the course. 

When he was compelled to suspend his studies at college he took 
up teaching, not only because it offered the best solution of his 
problem, but because teaching appealed to him. His first school 
was Anson Academy at North Anson. He was principal of that 
institution four consecutive years, beginning in 1870, except for 
one term which he taught at Derby Academy, in Hingham, Massa- 
chusetts. 

On August 7, 1877, he was admitted to the Kennebec County Bar 
after having completed his studies with E. W. & F. E. McFadden, 
a law firm in Fairfield. After his admission to the bar he was 
editor of the Fairfield Journal for nearly a year. He resumed 
teaching for a short period before he began actual law practice. 
Twelve years of his life he spent teaching. He taught thirteen 
different schools among which were Anson Academy, Derby Acad- 
emy, Fryeburg Academy, Oak Grove Seminary and Fairfield High 
School. 



26 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

His actual practice of law began on November 24, 1880, when 
he opened a law office at North New Portland. From his first 
visit to North Anson in 1870 he had been strongly attracted to the 
little village. There were four lawyers in active practice at North 
Anson in 1870, which induced him to open an office at North New 
Portland. North New Portland was as near North Anson as he 
could practice without competing with the North Anson attorneys. 

However, in the following May he gave up his office at North 
New Portland and opened an office at North Anson. The com- 
petition was keen as his office was the fifth law office in the small 
village. For several years his practice was the old story of the 
young lawyer — a living. Ikit as the years went by his practice 
increased. One by one the other offices were discontinued until he, 
alone, remained. He had practiced in North Anson village nearly 
thirty-eight years, when his work was finished on October 24, 1917- 

During his years of practice Judge Simmons attained distinction 
in his profession. He was Judge of the Probate Court of S'omerset 
County eight years, from 1904 to 19 12. The vote he received in 
each election was a personal tribute to his ability, and the manner 
in which he ran ahead of his ticket demonstrated the esteem in 
which he was held even in the rank of the opposition. This is the 
only public office ever held by Judge Simmons, although he was 
frequently urged to become a candidate for the office of attorney 
general, and once at least was selected for nomination as a Justice 
of the Supreme Judicial Court when the next vacancy should occur. 
Judge Simmons did not desire office. It was a common saying of 
his when urged to become a candidate: — "The only office I want is 
law office." 

In religious belief Judge Simmons was a Unitarian. In politics 
he began life a Democrat. He remained a Democrat until Cleve- 
land was refused the nomination of his party for a second term. 
He then became a Republican and remained a Republican as long 
as he lived. It required courage to make the change, because like 
all men in prominent positions in life who do likewise, he was not 
free from accusation of ulterior purpose. As a Republican he 
served as a member of tlie Republican County Committee for 
Somerset County, and for four years was a meml)cr of the Re- 
|)ublican State Committee. 

judge Simmons was made a ]\Iason May 11, 1871. He was a 
member of Northern Star Lodge, F. and A. ]\I., No. 28, of North 



AUGUSTINE SIMMONS 27 

Anson, and in 1882 was Master of that Lodge. He was also a 
member of Somerset Chapter Royal Arch Masons, Mount Moriah 
Council and of De ]\Iolay Commandery, K. T., all of Skowhegan. 
He was also a member of Kora Temple, ^Mystic Shrine. 

He was a direct descendant of John and Priscilla Alden and was, 
for several years, a member of Alden Kindred of America. He 
was also a descendant of Philippe Delanois. a French Huguenot, 
who came to this country on the Fortune. For several years Judge 
Simmons had been a member of the Society of ^layflower De- 
scendants of Elaine, and on November 21, 1913, was elected Gov- 
ernor of the Society, which office he held one year. 

Comm. Franklin S'immons, of Rome, Italy, the well known Amer- 
ican sculptor, who created the Logan Equestrian Alonument and 
the Peace Monument wdiich now stand on Pennsylvania Avenue 
in Washington, D. C., was a cousin of Judge Simmons. Although 
ten years separated their ages. Judge Simmons and Franklin Sim- 
mons were very intimate, an intimacy which began when they 
were boys and lasted until the sculptor's death in 1913. 

On November 22, 1872, Judge Simmons was united in marriage 
to Alice Patten Gahan of North Anson, the eldest daughter of 
James S. and Maria (Moore) Gahan. Mrs. Simmons' lovable 
nature and kindly disposition contributed largely to Judge Sim- 
mons' success both as a teacher and in his later life, making pos- 
sible successes which, without her assistance, he could not have 
attained. They had no children but the greater part of their mar- 
ried life was spent in helping the children of others in less happy 
circumstances. 

In Maine Judge Simmons was regarded as one of the strongest 
lawyers. Although he always practiced in a small village, his abil- 
ity was recognized everywhere. He was ever ready to assist the 
young lawyer, and in his office several young men were fitted for 
the bar. His popularity with the profession as well as with every- 
one else was truly remarkable. He was especially a favorite with 
young people, who went to him with their joys and their sorrows. 
Even in his advanced years he was one of them. 

His command of language, coupled with his originality of ex- 
pression and his eccentricities of manner, made him a real char- 
acter, a lawyer of the old school, about whom anecdotes will be 
told as he was wont to tell them about others. 



28 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



About the U. S. Census in Maine 
for the Year 1800 

Dear Editor Sprague : 

I have been trying to snatch time to complete a very interesting 
phase of the U. S. census for 1800, as it pertains to Maine. Have 
copied the details at Washington and put into form for your 
magazine. 

The most remarkable thing in the whole 1800 census of the U. S. 
13 the fact that Geo. Halliburton, enumerator for towns on Penob- 
scot Bay and River, had a "tail-end" column put onto his schedules, 
headed "From Whence Emigrant Came." So, in 1800, he got first 
hand answers from the pioneers as to where they came from when 
they settled Fox Islands (Vinalhaven), Deer Isle, Isle au Haut, 
Penobscot, Castine, Islesboro, Orland, Belfast, Prospect, Bucks- 
town (Bucksport), Ducktrap, Canaan, Northport, Frankfort, No. 
Harwick, Goose Pond Settlement, Colburnton, Sunkhaaze, Bangor, 
Eddington, Davistown, Quantabacook, Conduskeag, Hampden and 
Nos. 2 & 3 back of Hampden, Ohio, College Town and No. 3, ist 
Range. 

Now that I am at it, Mr. Editor, I think I will add a little more 
so that the public may have this nuich while awaiting my fuller 
article. I want to say that if we had had more George Hallibur- 
tons during the taking of the 1800 (2nd) census thousands of ques- 
tions that have gone unanswered would have easily been disposed 
of and millions of dollars worth of historic-geneological research 
for origin of pioneers in different parts of the Union would have 
been saved. 

In looking over Halliburton's schedules the thing which impresses 
the reader most is that nearly the whole of the Penobscot River 
territory was settled from Cape Cod, and the wonder is that anyone 
was left on the Cape. Old York and Cape Ann came in frequently, 
and then a list sifts in between these showing stragglers from 
everywhere. For instance : the extensive Grindle family of 
Brooksville (old Penobscot and Castine) spent money and research 
time for years to ascertain where the first Cirindle immigrated from 
to the Penobscot. They surrendered the problem as a failure until 
I informed them, this summer, that he was from Dover, N. H. ; a 



THE U. S. CENSUS IN MAINE 29 



place somewhat ofif the track in the general line of research for 
pioneers to this section. 

In the 1800 census George Halliburton (this the way he spelled 
his name) records himself as in Castine, from Nova Scotia, and 
the checking of his family shows himself and wife to have been 
between the ages of 26 and 45 years. With them were three males; 
one between i and 10 years old, one between 16 and 26 years old, 
and one between 26 and 45 years ; plus two females ; one between 16 
and 26 and another between 26 and 45 years of age. 

Biographer A. W. H. Eaton, in his compilation of "Old Boston 
.Families" says of the "Haliburton Family," (p. 66, Jan. 1917, N. E. 
Hist, and Gen. Reg.) that George (George Andrew) Haliburton 
was b. at Horton, N. S., 1767; living in 1843, when he is called 
"of Maine" and practically ends his knowledge of this man here. I 
will leave him, or anyone interested to know more, the above clue 
to further history of this member of the Haliburton family who 
distinguished himself as being sagacious enough to see the need of, 
and to preserve for posterity, the recording of the origin of our 
Penobscot Bay and River families as denoted above. 

Castine records will give further light, no doubt, of the final out- 
come of George and his family. 

B. LAKE NOYES. 



One hundred and fifty-six years ago. Dr. Samuel Johnson, in 
"Rasselas," w-rote the following which, in the light of war methods 
of today seem prophetic : 

If men were all virtuous I should with great alacrity teach them to fly. 
But what would be the security of the good if the bad could at pleasure 
invade them from the sky? Against an army sailing through the clouds 
neither walls, mountains nor seas could offer security. A flight of savages 
might hover in the wind and light with irresistible violence upon the capital 
of a fruitful region. 



The Journal is indebted to Mr. Henry M. Packard of Guilford, 
Maine, for gifts of several valuable Maine documents of a century 
ago, for which we extend our sincere thanks. Mr. Packard has 
also contributed a list of officers and members of York county 
teachers institute for 1851, which will appear in our next issue. 



30 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



More About Rev. Samuel Moody 

Reference in the Journal (V^ol. 5, pp. 217-18) was made to Rev- 
erend Samuel Moody locally known as "Parson" Moody and who 
flourished in York, Maine more than two hundred years ago. 

Laura E. Richards in her latest book "Abagail Adams and her 
Times," quotes the following in a letter from Abigail's husband to 
her. John Adams was the second President of the United States, 
and when a young man made frequent visits to Falmouth and 
York, Maine. 

This town of York is a curiosity, in several views. The people here are 
great idolaters of the memory of their former minister. Mr. Moody. Dr. 
Sayward* says and the rest of them generally think, that Mr. Moody was 
one of the greatest men and best saimts who have lived since the days of 
the Apostles. He had an ascendency and authority over the people here, 
as absolute as that of any prince in Europe, no't excepting his holiness. 

This he acquired by a variety of means. In the first place he settled in 
the place without any con'tract. His professed principle was that no man, 
should be hired to preach the Gospel, but that they should depend on the 
charity, generosity and benevolence of the people. This was very flattering 
to their pride, and left room for their ambition to display itself in an 
cnmlalion among them which should be the most bounMrul and ministerial. 
In the next place, he acquired the character of firm trust in Providence. A 
number of gentlemen came in one day, when they had nothing in the house. 
His wife was very anxious, they say, and asked him what they should 
do. Oh, never fear, trust Providence, make a fire in the oven and you will 
have something. Very soon, a variety of everything that was good was 
sent in, and by one o'clock they had a splendid dinner. 

He also had the reputation of enjoying intimate communication with the 
Deity, and of having a great interest in the Court of Heaven by his prayers. 
He always kept his musket in order and was fond of hunting. On a time, 
they say, he was out of provisions. There came along two wild geese. He 
takes his gun and cries, "If it please God, I will kill both, I will send the 
fattest to the poorest person in the parish." He shot and killed both ; or- 
dered them plucked and then sent the fattest to a poor widow, leaving the 
other, which was a very poor one at h'ome — to the great mortification of 
his lady. But his maxim was, Perform unto the Lord thy vow. 

But the best story I have heard yet was his doctrine in a sermon from this 
text, "Lord, what shall we do?" The doctrine was that when a person or 
people are in perplexity and know not what to do, they ought never to do 
they know not what. This is applicable to the times. 

(•') See the Jonrnal (vol. i. pp. 148) for "Notes on Judge Jonathan 
Sayward of York, Maine," by Honorable Frank D. Marshall. Was "Dr." 
Sayward the same person referred to by Mr. Marshall? Will not some one 
of the many who are well versed in the history of the old York families 

inform us? 

(EDITOR.) 



PENOBSCOT COUNTY ORGANIZATION 31 



Referring to the Organization of 
Penobscot County 

Contributed by Honorable Charles W. Stephens, Old J own, Maine. 
Hancock, ss. 

Circuit Court of Common Pleas. 

Nov. Term, A. D., 1816. 
The undersigned. William Abbott. Job Nelson and Bradshaw Hall, ap- 
pointed by the Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the County of Hancock 
a Committee on the part of said County, and Thomas A. Hill, appointed by 
the Circuit Court of Common Pleas for the County of Penobscot on the 
part of that County to settle and adjust in an equitable manner the sub- 
sisting claims of said Counties respectively conformably to the provisions 
of an act entitled 'An Act for dividing the County of Hancock and estab- 
lishing a new County by the name of Penobscot," beg leave to report 
That the amount of Cash in the hands of the Treasurer of the 

County of Hancock, April i, 1816, was >^i,23i «,£ 

That the amount of taxes outstanding at that time for the year 

^^^^ ^^'^* 542 93 

That the amount of taxes outstanding for 1815 was 2,095 22 

That there has been received by said Treasurer, since the first 

of April aforesaid from Mason Shaw, Esq 26454 

Also from John Wilkins, Esq. for excise 67 31 

And that the amount of taxes assessed upon the Counties of 
Hancock and Penobscot for the year 1816 which is col- 
lectible is 4^839 86 

Making the amount of money & credits $9,041 84 

And they further report : 

That the amount of claims against the County of 
Hancock so far as they were liquidated on 
the 1st of April aforesaid was $307 yy 

That the amount of claims against said County 
due on said first day of April and liquidated 
at April Term, (deducting from the same 
for the board of Prisoners t,s weeks at $5 
per week $27.50 was 132 49 

That the amount of Do. allowed at July T. last was 6045 $50071 

Which leaves a balance of money & credits of $8,541 13 

And the Committees of both Counties agree to de- 
duct from the amount aforesaid, being.... 8,541 13 

S7r as Commission upon the amount of Debts due 

being $500 71 

And also upon said sum of 27 50 

For board of Prisoners being 26 41 

Which leaves a balance of money & credits of $8,514 72 

to be divided between said Counties. 



32 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



And as a just rule of apportionment said Commiittees have taken the last 
County tax of 5,000 dollars of which the several towns & plantationsi in 
the Count\' of Penobscot pay $1,163.03 and they find that as 5,000:1,163.03:: 
8,514.72:1,980.57 which is the amount belonging- to said County of Pe- 
nobscot. But the Committee of the County of Hancock are of opinion that 
from said sum of $1,980.57 there ought to be deducted 5 per cent for the 
Comnnissions which said County of Hancock will be obliged to pay their 
Treasurer for receiving and paying over said sum and which amounts to 
$99.02 leaving a balance due said County of $1,881.55. 

On the other hand the Committee of Penobscot contends that only $23.03 
is justly chaigeable to that County being a proportion only of the 5 per 
ceii't aforesaid. 

And the Committee of the County of Hancock is of opinion that if there 
exist any contract made for the sole benefit if the Countj' of Penobscot, 
but which ithe County of Hancock is bound to fulfil, such sum ought to be 
retained as will be sufficient to indemnify the County of Hancock. 

They further state that the taxes of 1816 are payable one half on the first 
day of November instant and the remainder on the first day of April next, 
and that ithe Treasurer of the County of Hancock ought not to pay such 
proportion of said sum as arises from the tax of 1816 until the same is 
payable. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WILLIAM ABBOTT, 1 Committee 

JOB NELSON - of 

B. HALL, ) Hancock County. 

THOS. A. HILL, for Penobscot. 

Ordered, That this report be accepted as amended and that the treasurer 
of the County of Hancock pay over to the Treasurer of the County of 
Penobscot said sum of eighteen hundred & eighty-one dollars and fifty- 
five cents in manner following, viz : Eight hundred dollars on demand and 
the residue within the time reported or sooner if convenient, when the 
Treasurer of the Counity of Penobscot .shall give bonds to the Treasurer of 
the County of Hancock with two sufficient sureties in the sum of twelve 
hundred dollars to indemnify the County of Hancock from all claims that 
may hereafter appear against the County of Hancock and due before the 
first day of April next. 

A copy 
Attest : 

MASON SHAW. Clerk. 



MICHAEL PHILBRICK 33 



Michael Philbrick, Son of Capt. 
Zachariah Philbrick 

(Contributed by Prof. Windsor P. Daggett, U. of M., Orono, Me.) 

Rev. Jacob Chapman's "A Genealogy of the Philbrick and Phil- 
brook Families," page 24, gives an incomplete and an incorrect 
account of the descendants of Michael Philbrick. The following 
record, found among the manuscripts of the late Thomas C. Shaw 
of Standish, is probably a revised account which followed the pub- 
lication of Chapman's book. As Shaw was a descendent of the 
Philbrick family and as the Shaw household was a storehouse of 
family history, this record comes from a reliable source. It is 
probably published here for the first time. 

"Michael Philbrick. — ^Seventh child of Capt. Zachariah Phil- 
brick; b. in Newbury, Mass., Nov. 10, 1734. Wife, Mary .. 

lived in Hampton, N. H. Then was an original settler in Parsons- 
field, Me., about 1762; afterwards in Standish. In 1803, he re- 
moved with his family to Thorndike, Me., where he died in 1813, 
aged about 79. His children were : — 

"i. William, b. in Hampton, Dec. 10, 1759; m. Martha Nick- 
erson of Gorham. He died in Thorndike, 1850, aged 
about 90 years. 
''2. Olive, b. in Hampton, Jan. 6, 1762. 
"3. Gideon, b. in Standish, April 21, 1764; m. May 4, 1793 

Eunice West of Raymond ; d. in 1848. 
"4. Michael, Jr., b. June 19, 1766; m. Aug. 9, 1788, Jane Snow 

of Gorham. 
"5. Eunice, b. Mar. 18, 1768; m. Aaron Snow of Gorham. 
''6. Stephen, b. Feb. zy, 1770; m. March 14, 1793, Betsey 

Nowlen of Hallowell. 
"7. Rhoda, b. Apr. 22, 1772; m. Dec. 25. 1792, Enoch Shaw. 

She died Jan. 3, 1819. 
"8. Samuel, b. Mar. 15. 1777; m. Anna Simonton. Supposed 
to have died at Cape Elizabeth in 1824, leaving children, 
Samuel, Mary, and Ellen." 
An account of Thomas C. Shaw appears in Mrs. H. F. Farwell's 
''Shaw Records.'' page 173. These same Records, p. 156, give the 
descendants of Rhoda Philbrick, wife of Enoch Shaw. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and PubHsher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $i.oo. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



The first law of History is not to dare tell a lie, the second 
not to fear to tell the truth; besides let the Historian be beyond 
all suspicion of favoring or hating any zuhomsoever. 

PONTIFF, LEO XHI. 



BROWSINGS BY THE EDITOR IN HIS OWN LIBRARY. 

Since we began the work of editing the Journal we have received 
scores of letters seeking information as to what books should be 
selected for a course of reading in early Maine History. These 
have come from public school scholars and from teachers and col- 
lege students, from club women, clergymen and Maine people in 
different walks of life. We have cheerfully answered them as 
well as our limited knowledge would permit and have always 
urged that they begin with the first voyagers and explorers of the 
Maine coast : Champlain, de Monts, Martin Pring. Waymouth, 
etc. (1603-5) ^"d the Popham Colony (1607). 

If one is in the State Library at Augusta, or the library of the 
Maine Historical Society at Portland one can delve more deeply 
in this lore than in the private libraries of the State. 

And yet in browsing in our own little library we find much that 
is authoritative and instructive along these lines. Mrs. H. G. Rowe 
in the preface to her charming book : "Retold Tales of the Hills and 
Shores of Maine," (Bangor 1892) says: 

An Irish matron, one of the honored foremothers of our Pine Tree 
State, when asked by a passing traveller what crops she expected to raise 
upon the sandy, 1>oulder strewn soil of her little sea bordered iarny, 
replied: Craps is it? Faith l)ut I'll be after raisen a Governor or two, 
wid maybe a Gineral or a J edge, an a ban full o' brave byes thrown in f'r 
ballast, that'll make these woods an' swamps laugh wid a harvest sich as the 
ould worrld niver dramed ov. Thims the craps that wid God's blissin, 
w '11 be after sindin to the worrld's mill one of these days. 



BROWSINGS IN THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY 35 

The woman who uttered these brave words is called by Mrs. 
Rowe "Bridget'' Sullivan, the place Berwick in the historic county 
of York, Maine, and the time subsequent to 1723. For it was m 
the latter year when William Sullivan and his wife migrated to 
Maine from Ireland.' 

He was a highly educated man, well skilled in classical literature 
and a teacher of the classics. He died in Berwick, in 1796, at the 
age of 105 years. 

His three sons John, Ebenezer, and James were men of note in 
their day. The former was a lawyer. Major General in the Revo- 
lution, member of the Continental Congress, Attorney General of 
New Hampshire, member of the Federal Constitution Convention, 
and judge of the U. S. District Court. 

James was born in Berwick, in 1774. He was a lawyer com- 
mencing practice in Georgetown, Maine, but two years later he 
removed to Biddeford, Maine, where h? remained for a tew years 
and then located in Massachusetts. Willis^ says of him : 

From the commencement of the Revolution to the close of his life, in 
1808, he was constantly in official stations, as member of the legislature, 
commissary of the troops, judge of the Supeiior Court, Attorney General, 
and commissioner of the United States. 

He also engaged largely in literary labors, was the prime mover 
in organizing the Massachusetts Historical Society and was its first 
president. 

He was Maine's first historian. He wrote: ''The History of the 
District of Maine." Printed by I. Thomas and E. T. Andrews, 
Fausts Statute No. 45, Newbury Street, Boston, 1795 " It contams 
421 pages and is today a most valuable work for the student of 
Maine's colonial history. 

The next most important work in the development of history in 
this direction was "The History of the State of Maine ; from its 
First Discovery, A. D. 1602, to The Separation, A. D. 1820." by 
William D. Williamson,'' published in 1832, in two volumes contain- 
ing i»376 pages. 

Mr. Williamson was born in Canterbury, Connecticut, luly 31, 
1779, and died May 27, 1847. He was a lawyer and as soon as he 
was admitted to the bar began practice in 1804, at Bangor, then a 
town in Hancock County. He was a man of great activities as ? 



C) William Willis' History of the Lawyers of Maine( Portland, 1863) 
P- 97. 

(")Ibid. p. 95-6. 

C) See Journal, \'ol. 3, No. 4, pp. 133-5. 



36 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

publicist and political leader. He held various eminent official 
positions while Maine was under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts. 
and later when Maine became a State. He was the first and sole 
Senator from the new County of Penobscot, became president of the 
Maine Senate and was thus acting Governor of Maine m place of 
Governor King who resigned. He was the first representative in 
Congress from the Bangor congressional district. 

Although his life was a busy one in State and public affairs he 
was a profound student of Maine colonial history and devoted 
nuich time to research and literary pursuits. If he had never 
achieved any other accomplishment his history of Maine would 
have made his fame secure. 

James Sullivan and William Durkee Williamson were the pion- 
eers in this work. Many others have since done great service but 
Abbot and Varney and all the other writers have built upon the 
solid foundation laid by them in the first days of our republic. 

In exploring the Maine historical field the work and collections 
of the Maine Historical Society is a beacon light whose rays pene- 
trate many nooks and corners overlooked by the founders. 

This society was organized and held its first meeting in the city of 
Portland, „April ii, 1822, in accordance with an act of the Maine 
Legislature, passed February 4th of that year. Its first president 
was Albion K. Parris. Governor of Maine. 1822-1827. Its first 
volume of Collections was published in 1831, and was printed by 
Day, Eraser & Co., Exchange St., Portland, Maine. 

The first paper in this book is part one of the History of Portland 
by William Willis, containing 242 pages. Other important items in 
this volume are ''Montresor's Journal'' and "Arnold's Letters." 

Colonel Montresor, an officer of Engineers in the British Service 
was employed by his government in 1760, to explore the country 
from Quebec into the interior of Maine and report thereon. This 
is his report in the form of a "journal." This manuscript toge'licr 
with the original letters of Arnold while on his Quebec expedition:' 
were for a time in the possession of Colonel Aaron Burr who wa? 
one of the most famous and picturesque personages of the revolu- 
tionary period and the last days of the eighteenth and first days of 
the nineteenth centuries. 

He was tried for treason and conspiracy against The .American 
government in a Federal court presided over by John Marshall and 
acquitted, llis life story is one of the most romantic ones in Ameri- 
can history. 



BROWSINGS IN THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY 37 

William Willis, one of the earliest and most active members and 
officers of the society chanced to have an acquaintance with Burr, 
and was on intimate terms with some of his close friends. It has 
been frequently stated that Colonel Burr having enemies in the 
New York Historical Society did not intend that these valuable 
papers should ever become the property of that society and hence 
it was an easy matter for Mr. WilHs to secure them for the Maine 
society which he did. 

In the introductory to these (page 341) presumably written by 
Mr. Willis, the writer says that it was Montresor's Journal that 
first suggested to Arnold the route to be pursued through Maine. 

It was perhaps unfortunate for the success of this expedition 
that he did not follow in the footsteps of Joseph Chadwick, who, 
in 1764, was employed by the Massachusetts Colony to explore the 
country from the Penobscot to Quebec. 

By his report and its accompanying map it appears that he went 
first to Fort Pownal. thence up the Penobscot to Old Town, there 
employing Indian guides who led him up the Piscataquis to Moose- 
head Lake and thence to Quebec by a very safe and comfortable 
route.' 

This society has published twenty-two volumes of Collections and 
twenty-four volumes of a "Documentary History of Maine." The 
first volume of this series is devoted to a ''History of the Discovery 
of Maine," by J. H. Kohl with an appendix on the voyages of 
the Cabots, by M. D. Avezac, of Paris. It was edited by William 
Willis and published in 1869. 

The work of publishing a documentary history of Maine had its 
inception in the Maine Historical Society as early as 1863, when thr 
Maine legislature passed the following resolve which was approved 
March 17, 1863 : 

Resolved, That the governor be hereby authorized to procure copies of 
original documents in the British State paper office in regard to the early 
history of Maine, the same to be deposited in the state library; and the 
sum of four luuidred dollars is hereby appropriated for this purpose out of 
any money not otherwise appropriated ^ the governor to appoint, if need be, 
at his discretion an agent for the purpose of accomplishii.g the objects of 
this resolve; provided, that the entire expenditure shall not exceed, the 
amount of the above appropriation. 

In view^ of the fact that since then some Maine legislatures, 'in- 
cluding that of 1917, have ruthlessly slaughtered these and similar 
appropriations, and adopted a parsimonious and antagonistic policy 

Bangor Hist. Mag., vol. 4, p. 141. 



38 Sl'RAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



legarding them it would be well to bear in mind that this hrst ')e- 
ginning was made when Maine and the whole coun.try were in 
the throes of the Civil War. 

This appropriation was used chieflv as Mr. Willis says in making 
"a preliminary investigation" of the subject. 

In 1867 the governor and council were authorized 10 contract 
with the society for the publication, annually, of a volume oontam- 
ii:g the earliest documents, charters, and other state papers "illus- 
trating the history of Maine.'' 

The first result of this wise and lil)eral attitude by the state to- 
wards historical research was the volume under consideration. 

At this time the reverend Dr. Leonard Woods had resigned the 
presidency of Bowdoin College and was commissioned by the gov 
ernor as agent to attend to the duties above mentioned riud there 
upon visited Europe for that purpose. 

The fruits of his efforts appear in the first two volumes. 

While in Germany he met Dr. Kohl, who reputation as a traveler, 
author, and cartographer, was enfinent in this country as well as 
P.urope. 

In 1854, he came to America, where he traveled four years, dr- 
ing which time he prepared for the government of the United State^ 
a series of maps relating to the early voyagers and explorers o'' 
America. Thus Dr. Woods fortunately secured his services i' . 
building a great foundation for Maine historical research. 

At this time Dr. Woods discovered the original manuscript ot 
JIakduyt's "Discourse on western planting" which had been lost to 
the world for three hundred years. This valuable document edited 
and arranged by him constitutes the second volume of this series. 

The "Baxter Manuscripts'' begin with the fourth volume. 
Twenty-one volumes have thus far been published. It would not 
be easy to estimate the historical value of this collection. They 
contain charters, grants, letters, contracts, petitions, and everv piece 
of writing relating directly or collaterally to the history of Maine, 
that the Honorable James Phinney Baxter was able to discover in 
State archives in London, Paris, Boston, Canada, Washington, etc. 
In fact he made a world wide search for this material which will be 
preserved for rdl times in these and two or three other forth-com- 
ing volumes. 

Mr. Baxter has long been Maine's leading historical writer. But 
if he had never done else than this work it would ever have been 
111 enduring monument to his memorv. 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 39 



Correction 

A most regretable blunder occurred in the last issue of the Jour- 
nal when (p. 284) the death of Mr. Otis G. Hammond. Superin- 
tendent of the New Hampshire Historical Society was reported. 

The fact is that Mr. Hammond is not dead very much alive. 

Upon learning of this error, too late to make the proper change, 
we wrote Mr. Hammond expressing our chagrin and sorrow for it 
and immediately received the following kind and gentlemanly reply : 

Mr. John F. Sprague, 

Foxcroft, Maine, 
My Dear Sir : — 

While I regret the error which occurred in the recent issue of your mag- 
ainze in relation to myself, as it may possibly cause unnecessar}- sorrow to) 
some of my friends, yet I can easily forgive you as I know how often those 
things occur. It is not of great consequence, and a note of correction in 
your next issue will be acceptable. 

The error which \-ou made was in stating that I died on the loth of 
February last. It was Mrs. Hammond and not myself. The fact in 
regard to date and place were correct. 

Yours very truly, 

OTIS G. HAMMOND, 

Siil^criiitcndcut. 



Sayings of Subscribers 

William P. Marden, Recorder of Municipal Court, Miliinocket : 

"Hope you will meet with pro^mpt response from all .vour subscribers to 
your Journal which I greatly esteem." 



Nina L. Davee, So. Portland : 

"I am sending ch.eck for the 'Journal' for another year. We consider it 
too valuable a periodical ^to be without." 



Colonel Fred H. Parkhurst, Bangor, Maine : 

"I have enjoyed the Journal very much although in these strenuous times 
it is not easy to find opportunity to read.' 



40 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Mr. James Lewis, Boston, Mass. : 

"I read your editorial in the last Journal 'As it appears to the Editor' 
with much interest. You are right. This world war is only a continuation 
of the great fight begun at Runnymede. 

I pray God that it may be the last battle against despotism." 



Mr. Lucius M. Perkins, Alfred, Maine. Who has always taken a 
deep interest in all Maine historical matters : 
"I intend to send you an article on the distribution of the surplus in 
1836. The town of Alfred has preserved the original receipts, signed by 
the citizens, and bound in book form in the public library." 




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CONTENTS 



41 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVetv. M. D. 




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Newport, Maine 
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CONTENTS 



Sketch of Bangor. Earlier Days 43 

Captain Benjamin Bin-ton 48 

Officers and Members of York County Teachers' Institute 55 

Grave of Alary Chauncy 57 

Browsings by the Editor in his Own Library 6r 

How Our State Educators Aid Study of Maine History 67 

Pharmacy of the Red Man 69 

Sayings of Subscribers 71 

Town of Alfred "J'Z 



52 



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Spr ague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER 1918 No. 2 



Sketch of Bangor, Maine, in the 
Early Days 

Written by Charles GiUnan of Bangor for th: American 
Magazine published in Boston, and republished in the 
Maine Monthly Magazine, edited by Mr. Gihnan, in its 
issue of June i8^/. 

Bangor is pleasantly situated on the wesitern bank of the Penob- 
scot river, at the head of the tide and navigation, thirty miles from 
its mouth. The Kenduskeag Stream, which here enters the main 
river at right angles, divides the compact part of the city into nearly 
equal parts. The land on each side of the stream rises to a consider- 
able height, and the village, which stretches from it and the Penob- 
scot in every direction, presents a beautiful and picturesque appear- 
ance, particularly on approaching it from down the river, when it 
is gradually disclosed to the view. The scenery viewed from the 
height of land on the north-west side of the village is delightful. 
From this point on a clear day, the Katahdin mountain, with its 
snow-white summit, at a distance of more than seventy miles, can 
be distinctly seen. 

Bangor, originally called the Kenduskeag plantation, from the 
Stream above alluded to, now extends about six miles on the river. 
It formerly included a considerable portion of what is now Orono, 
situated above, and Hampden, below, and in 1790, contained 567 
inhabitants. It then probably contained double the extent of terri- 
tory now comprised within its limits. According to Judge \\^illiam- 
.■-on's valuable History of Maine, published about five years since, 
the first settler came to this plantation with his family in the lattef 
part of 1769. 

In the ensuing year, several families came to the place ; and. in 
1772 the settlement contained twelve families. In March. 1787. a 



44 Si'RAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



pul)lic meeting- was held for the purpose of taking measures to build 
a house of public worshij), the records of which are said to be the 
earliest extant. The first clergyman, the Rev. Seth Noble, a whig 
refugee from the Province of Nova Scotia, who had resided in the 
plantation about one year, was engaged by the people living on each 
side of the Penobscot, to of^ciate for them, and he agreed to remain 
their pastor so long as they would pay him a salary of four hundred 
dollars. He continued with them about twelve years. His installa- 
tion took place imder an oak tree. To him was committed the 
agency of prociu'ing an act of incorporation for the town, which 
was obtained in February. 1791. The inhabitants of the plantation 
in public meeting instructed him to have it called Simbury, which 
i.ame was probal)]y suggested by the pleasant appearance of the 
place. Perhaps the reverend gentleman did not coincide with his 
ccnstituents as regards the doctrine of instruction, and not manifest- 
ing a disposition to ''obey or resign." he assumed the responsibility 
of substituting the name of P)angor. Some supposed the name 
might have escaped his recollection, and having a strong partiality 
tor the good old psalm tune, he caused the name to be placed in the 
cict of incorporation. We do not learn that this departure from 
'democratic usage' occasioned an}' unpleasant feelings on the part 
of his constituents towards him. 

The first public building in Bangor, the Court House, now the 
City Hall, was erected in 1812, and occupied by the courts, and 
for religious and other public meetings till 1822. During the latter 
year, the first meeting-house was built for the only rehgious society 
then existing in Bangor, over which the Rev. Harvey Loomis was 
settled, who was ordained in 181 1. This excellent and tmiversaMv 
beloved man preached to this society till January 2d, 182=;. when he 
died suddenly in his pulpit before the commencement of the fore- 
noon services. Singular as the fact may appear, he had selected for 
his text the following passage of scripture — 'This year thou shalt 
surely die.' This meeting-house was consiuned bv fire five years 
afterwards, and in 1831 its p^ace was su])plied by a very handsome 
edifice of brick. The Unitarian, Baptist, and Methodist houses of 
worship were connnenced in 1828. and completed in that and the 
succeeding year. The Hannnond Street Church, built by a portion 
of the Calvinistic society, was completed in 1834. St. John's Church, 
a beautiful edifice intended for the Episcopa'ian order, was erected 
during the last season, bivt has not yet been occupied. At the same 



SKETCH OF BANGOR, MAINE 45 



time, a large brick church for the Methodist society, and a small 
one of wood for the Catholics, were commenced, and will probably 
be completed during the present season. The whole number of 
cliurches will then be eight. A large and commodious Court House 
of brick, containing the several County offices, and a stone jail were 
erected in 1832. The Maine Charity School, or Theological Semi- 
nary, incorporated in 1814, and opened in Hampden in 1816, was 
afterwards removed to Bangor, and a classical school connected 
v>-ith it. The principal building of brick, four stories high and simi- 
lar to the usual college edifice, is situated on a commanding emi- 
nence, on a tract of seven acres, the donation of the late Isaac D. 
Davenport, of Milton, Massachusetts. Another of the same size 
is in contemplation, as also a large and elegant chapel, and residences 
for the professors connected with the seminary. There are four 
professorships, and the funds of the institution amount to about one 
hundred and twenty thousand dollars. It is under the direction of 
trustees of the Calvinistic denomination. The Bangor House, a 
more particular description of which may be given hereafter, is a 
large and splendid hotel, very similar to the Tremont House, in 
Boston. It was first opened for the reception of company on the 
first day of January, 1835. It is a building which reflects great 
credit upon the enterprise of its projectors and proprietors. There 
are several other large and commodious public houses in the city. 
I'here are three bridges across the Kenduskeag stream, two of which 
?.re the result of individual enterprise. A large covered bridge is 
extended across the Penobscot. 

The first printing ofifice was established in the autumn of 181 5, by 
Peter Edes, now the oldest printer in the Union, who, after an ab- 
sence of a few years, has returned to Bangor to pass the eve of life 
in the family of one of his children. He immediately established a 
weekly newspaper. At the present time, there are five printing 
offices from which are issued five weekly papers, to which number 
another is soon to be added, two dailies, and the only monthlv peri- 
odical in the State. The first bank was incorporated in 18 18. There 
are now nine whose aggregate capital is $900,000. These do not 
fully supply the wants of the community, a circumstance tending 
somewhat to show the extent of the business operations. The 
chief business is the trafiic in lumber, which gives rise to 
a large amount of other business. Intimately connected 
with it is that of navigation, in which manv are exten- 



46 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



sively engaged. This would have been more extended, did not 
the severity of the winter season occasion obstruction by the ice, 
between four and hve months of the year. During this portion of 
the year, however, vessels can reach Frankfort, twelve miles below, 
with perfect safety. A remedy for this interruption is being sough.t 
out by means of a railroad between the two places, which will 
greatly facilitate operations. In this matter of railroads, the Ban- 
goreans have outdone other citizens of their State. The first rail- 
road in Maine, from Bangor to Oldtown in Orono, about twelve 
miles in length, built at an expense of about $250,000, was opened 
m November last, and has not been obstructed but for a single day, 
during the interim. It reflects great credit upon the enterprise and 
public spirit of Messrs. Edward and Samuel Smith, its projectors, 
who have, in several other instances done much to benefit the city. 
Bangor was incorporated as a city in the winter of 1833-4, and 
the charter being accepted in the spring of the latter year, Allen 
Oilman, Esq., who had resided in the town about thirty-five years, 
was elected Mayor, and held the offtce for the term of two years. 
He was succeeded by Edward Kent. Esq., the present incumbent. 
Both of these gentlemen are natives of New Hampshire, and mem- 
bers of the legal profession. The want of a City form of govern- 
ment had been sensibly felt, and the result has shown that its adop- 
tion has been a very important measure in facilitating the progress 
c f public improvement. Its march has been onward, and it appears 
to have been the watchword of every citizen. A city market of 
ample dimensions has been commenced and will probably be com- 
pleted in the course of this or the coming year. It will be an orna- 
ment to the city, and another strong proof of the enterprise; anl 
public spirit of its citizens. While their attention has been so 
strongly fixed upon the welfare and interests of their fellow beings, 
they have not been unmindful of those who have passed, and are 
continually passing from among them. A public cemetery at Mount 
Hope, on the plan of Mount Auburn, was consecrated in July last, 
in the usual manner. The grounds comprise about thirty acres, 
twenty of which belong to the city, and the remainder to individuals, 
having been put into lots and sold. The location is very fine about 
two miles from the compact part of the city, and is said to be in- 
ferior to no other p'ace of the kind, Mount Auburn excepted, for 
the advantages of soil, situation, and shrubbery. Connected with it 
are a beautiful green-house and garden, under the care of a g.'ntle- 



SKETCH OF BANGOR, MAINE 47 

man who devotes his whoie attention to it, and whose labors ah-eady 
have done much to Deautify and adorn the place. It will be maa<: 
one of the most beautiful spots on the Penobscot, and is likeiy to 
become, comparatively speaking, a place of quite as much resort as 
Aiount Aubvn-n. 

On the outskirts of the city, and within its limits, two or three 
villages are rapidly springing up. Owing to their peculiarly excel- 
lent location for the purposes of milling and manufacturing, they 
have fallen into the hands of capitalists, who have a fair prospect 
of reaping a rich reward for their investments. The principal of 
these is the village of North Bangor, where are situated the exten- 
sive works of the Penobscot Mill Dam Company. Thirty saws have 
already been in operation and their charter allows of a great in- 
crease, giving, as it does, the privilege of erecting their works for a 
considerable distance on the banks and falls of the Penobscot. This 
village is about four miles from the center of business, on the main 
road to Orono, and three from the Lower Stillwater village, where 
very extensive operations of a similar character are contemplated. 
7 he Kenduskeag Stream, on which one of these villages is situated, 
has ample advantages for manufacturing purposes ; to further which 
a company has recently been incorporated. 

The population of Bangor, w^ithin the few last years, has increased 
with great rapidity. In 1800 the whole number of inhabitants was 
277. Seven years previous, the rateable polls were 45 ; and sixteen 
years afterwards, 252. In 1810 the whole population amounted to 
850; in 1820, 1,221; in 1830, 2,828. At the present time the whole 
number, including foreigners, is estimated at 9,500. This astonish- 
ing increase is almost without a parallel in this county. Whether it 
will continue to grow in a corresponding ratio, is very difficult to 
determine, so fluctuating is the general state of business. One 
thing however, is certain. Bangor will inevitably "go-ahead'' with a 
strong hand, and if it does not increase for the same length of time 
to come in a like ratio, its advance will be strong and steadv. 

The following comprehensive extract may well conclude this 
sketch of the history and progress of Bangor. 'The rapid and unex- 
ampled increase of the city of Bangor in wealth, population, and 
business, within the short period of three years — its facilities and 
resources for still further increase, warrant us in saying, that at no 
distant period of time, it is destined to become one of the first cities 
within the Union. Its local situation is unrivalled in the New Eng- 



^8 SI^RAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



land States — at tlie head of navigation, on one of the finest rivers r.i 
the United States, near the centre of the territory of Maine, sur- 
rounded by a superior country, rapidly improving, and commanding 
all the resources of lumber from the head waters of the Penobscot 
and its tributaries, it presents such encouragement to the farmer, 
mechanic, and the merchant as perhaps cannot be found in any 
other place. In the centre of a basin of nearly 10,000 scjuare miles, 
of a soil unsurpassed in fertility — which must eventually become 
tbe great depot of its produce, and the great mart of exchange for 
the eastern portion of the State. The immense tracts of timber 
lands and the fast settling towns and villages of the interior, to say 
nothing of our commercial resources, promise an exhaustless supply 
of material upon which our enterprise may work. Water privileges, 
unrivalled in power and extent, are within the reach of the city, and 
to the eye of the experienced observer present the germs of many 
a manufacturing estabHshment, and the means of employment to 
thousands. Wherever we look, we find something to aid us in our 
advance to prosperity, and with these advantages, what shall put us 
back? Fifty years ago, and this was a wilderness. Fifty years 
hence, and what will then be? Yet the example of the few past 
years, and the well known and acknowledged enterprise of our 
citizens answer.' 



Captain Benjamin Burton 

By Charles M. Starbird 
The St. Georges Region 

The territory bordering on the St. Georges River has a history of 
])articular interest. No evidence of an Indian settlement has ever 
l)ecn found, but the country belonged to the Wawenocks until con- 
c|uered by the Tarratines in 161 5.' The Indian name for the St. 
Georges was "Secoh(|uet". for Pleasant Point in Gushing "Saw- 
quid . 

The fact of George Weymouth's visit to these shores has been 
generally accepted. Some historians have attemj>ted to place his. 



'Cyrus Eaton: .Annals of Warren, p. 10. 

"Maine Historical Collections, Series I, Vol. 4, p. iin. 



CAPTAIN BEXJAAilX BURTOX 49 

landing on the J'enobscot or Kennebec rivers. However the major- 
ity and perhaps the most authentic agree on the St. Georges.' 

Ihe Plymouth Company came into possession of this territory 
in 1616, when the English possessions in .Vmerica were divided be- 
tween the Plymouth and London Companies. On Marcli 2;;, 1630, 
the company granted to John Beauchamp of Boston, England, that 
strip of land extending from the seaboard between the Penobscot 
and Muscongus river so far north as would, not interfering with any 
other patent, embrace a strip equal to 30 miles square. The pro- 
prietors established a truckhouse on the eastern bank of the St. 
Cieorges. 

Nearly a hundred years later the grant came into the hands of 
General Samuel Waldo and is henceforth know-n as the "Waldo 
I'atent." The Waldo grant is too well known to require any atten- 
tion here. 

Several attempts at settlement were made during the next few 
years but no permanent settlement was made until about 1719.'' In 
1719-20, the Waldo proprietors had a fort erected and a garrison 
of 20 men under Capt. Westbrook was placed in charge.' At the 
same time the proprietors built a sawmill and about 30 frame-houses. 

On June 15, 1722, a party of 200 Indians burned the proprietor's 
sloop, killed one man and took six prisoners. The sawmill was 
burned as were also some of the houses. An attack was made upon 
the garrison but the resistance was so determined that the Indians 
were forced to withdraw ; on the 24th of the following August an- 
other attack was made. A large body of savages commenced to 
inidermine the fort but the earth, made soft by heavy rain, caved in 
and the siege was abandoned. Several white men were killed and 
five were taken prisoners but were released. 

The next attack came on Dec. 25. 1723, when the savages laid 
siege to the fort and persisted with desperate resolution for thirty 
days. Col. Westbrook finally arrived and put the red skins to 
flight. 

Again, in 1724, minor attacks were made at dififerent times with 
no serious results. Peaceful times followed and in 1730 ''there 
were between Muscongus and Kennebec about 150 families, pro- 
bably 900 or T.ooo inhabitants''.' The territory was divided into 



■*See Henry S. Burrafe : Peeinnincs of Co^orial Maine, pn. .^5-47. 

Tyrus Eaton: Annals of Warren, pp. 20-72. 

nb-d n. ^^. 

'Anna's of Warren n. /»". 



50 S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

two townships. The lower part which was known as the '"Lower 
'J'ownship of St. Georges", later became the town of Gushing. Ihe 
greater part of the settlers were Scotch emigrants from the north 
of Ireland.' 

Between 1725 and 1745, the settlers were at peace with the east- 
ern Indians and advantage was taken of this time to build up and 
strengthen the settlement. Truck-houses were built for trade with 
the Indians. Sawmills were also constructed. The tireless efforts 
of General Waldo brought 40 German families from Brunswick 
and Saxony. Beginning with the war with France in 1745 the his- 
tory of this region is, for the next few years, the history of one 
man — Captain Burton. 

'George J. Varney: A Gazetteer of Maine p. 189. 

THE BURTON ANCESTRY 

The Burton family originated in old Wales. The father of the 
subject of this sketch was born in that part of the British Isles and 
served in Cromwell's army when he reduced the Irish to obedience 
under the Commonwealth. He embarked for America in 1736 with 
his son Benjamin, induced to migrate here by General Waldo's 
Proclamation. The father never reached this .state, dying on the 
passage.' 

BENJAMIN BURTON 

Benjamin Burton was born in Wa'es about 171 5. Early in his youtli he 
went to Ireland where he married zMice Lewis." Coming- to this country in 
1636, he landed in Boston where he remained for some years. Little can 
be found of his stop there. Captain Burton had eleven children.^" 

1. Rebecca reared ard died in Boston. 

2. ."Xgnes died in Boston in 1829. 

3. Miary reared in Halifax, Nova Scotia and married Capt. Thomas 

Carey. 

4. .\lice reared and died in Boston. 

5. Beniamin born in the blockhouse at Thomaston. Dec. 9. 174Q. He 

went to Boston and took part ii the fnmous "Boston Tea Party." 
Beni?min en'isted in the Continenta'l Army and was commis- 
sioned lieutenant in Sept. 1776 and captain in Col. Thurburn's 
Regt. in Rhode Island in 1777. He was taken prisoner in 1781 



"Maine Historical Collections Series I, Vol. VII, p. 327. 

"Annals of Warren, p. 381. 

"The genealogical notes arc found in Annals of Warren, p. 381. 



CAPTAIN BENJAMIN BURTON 51 



and was held in company with General Peleg Wadsworth who 
had also been made prisoner. Burton finally escaped. When the 
militia was reorganized he was chosen a Lieutenamt-Colonel. 
Benjamin married Hannah Church of Bristol, R. I. They had 
seven children. Mrs. Burton died Aug. 21, 1834, and the Colonel 
died in Warren, Me., May 24, 1835. A memoir of Col. Burton 
is published in the Mame Historical collections series I^ Vol. 
VH, pp. 3^5-335- 

6. John died at the age of about 19. 

7. Sarah born in 1753; married Nehemiah Eastman of Gilmantown, 

N. H., and died at Montpelier in June, 1835. 

8. Elizabeth married Hon. Edward Killeran of Gushing. 

9. Thomas reared in Calais. He married ist Betsey Barber, and 

2d, Susan McCo'bb. He died at Calais in 1837 or 1838. 

10. William reared in Gushing. He married ist, Jane Robinson, and 

2d, Ghloe Bradford. 

11. Jane married Moses Robinson of Gushing and died in Feb., 1803. 
Captain Burton enlisted and took part in the famous expedition against 

Louisburg. He was made a lieutenant and served with considerable distinc- 
tion." 

After returning from Louisburg, Burton was placed in charge 
of the block-house in the present town of Thoniaston. At this time 
Capt. Jabez Bradbury was in command of the fort and acted as 
truck-master. In August, 1745, war was declared against all the 
Lidian tribes. In Sept. of the same year, a large party of Tarratines 
encamped in the vicinity of the fort and sent four of their principal 
sagamores to procure ammunition, Captain Bradbury gave them 
ammunition and ordered ihem to return to their party immediately 
or they would be shot. The men left, but either because of fatigue 
or the intemperate use of intoxicants, they lingered on the way, en- 
camping on the bank of Mill River. Captain Burton learned of 
their position and, with Lieut. Proctor and a band of men set out in 
pursuit. The party came upon the Indians in their camp. Burton 
severed the head of Captain Morris, one of the sagamores, from his 
bodv with a single blow of his sword. Captain Sam. another chief, 
was killed and Col. Job was taken to Boston where he died in con- 
finement. The fourth chief happened to be down at the river 
at the time and escaped. Some people criticised Capt. Burton for 
the deed but more praised him. It is certain that the death of 
Morris brought great relief to the settlers for "he had been a great 
terror. 



"Maine Historical Collections Series I. Vol. VH. p ^2^. 

"H. M. Sylvester ; Indian Wars of New England, Vol. 3. p. 355. 



52 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

In 1750 or 1 75 1, Burton moved to the present town of Gushing 
but ciitl not build the block-house, which he occupied, until 1753/" 
'1 he b.ock-house was known as '' Burton's Fort." While in Gushing, 
Gaptain burton gained his live.ihood by ti.ling the soil. Ciam-flats 
were near at hand and the river furnished an abundance of fish. 

At the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754, a large 
pack of Newfoundland dogs was secured. These dogs were trained 
to keep the distance of a gun shot from parties going out from the 
lort and the savages were thus unable to ambush the defenders. No 
party left the blockhouse without taking some half-dozen dogs with 
them. 

There are many stories told of Burton's courage and resourceful- 
ness. Many of these, no doubt, are mere legends, but the following 
is reasonably true. At one time. Burton together with his wife and 
four children were some distance from the fort when one of the 
dogs gave an alarm. Taking one child on his back and one under 
each arm. while his Vv^ife carried the fourth, the fort was reached in 
safety. ; [ 

On June 10. 1755, the General Gourt declared war on all the east- 
ern Indian tribes except the Tarratines. The Tarratines continued 
to come to the fort and Gapt. Bradbury showed them all kindness. 
But the settlers made little discrimination between the tribes. A 
r-^d-man was to be hated and killed wherever found and to whatever 
tribe he might belong. The attitude of Bradbury toward the Tarra- 
tines gave rise to many suspicions and rumors that he was carrying 
c negotiations with them. Gaptain Burton was among the number 
disturbed by his conduct. The following letter of Burton is found 
in the Massachusetts Archives." 

"To Capt. Thomas Proctor Jr. Boston neer the Orange tree." 
"St. Georges June 6th ^ 1755 
'Dr. Brother 

"Yesterday about nine of the Clock we heard about 15 guns fired, and 
after that Capt Bradbury fired an alarm ; upon which tliree men went up 
to the fort to hear what was Doing — ■ 

"and there is two Scotch Lads Killed or taken : but we supose Kiled — 
they were Brothers — there Sir names is Brown — there was three more up 
th-* river the same Time ; but at Sum Distance from them — viz. Mr. 
Lamond, Archbald Gamble & Son. but got safe home — those are our good 
friends the penobscots. So Ezstold by our B : the Commander here I hope 



"W. D. Williamson ; History of the State of Maine, Vol. '2, p. 306. 
"Vol. 54, p. 453. 



CAPTAIN BEX'JAMIX BURTOX 53 



the Government wMl now Doo Sumthing to prevent Ruin by a Savage 
Enemy. I remain your Loveing Brother till Death 

Benja Burton." 

In June, 1756. war was formally declared against France. The 
St. Georges district was especially hated by the Indians. On March 
24, 1756'' a large company attacked Burton's fort killing two of his 
men and scalping a third. The exact number of men in the fort at 
that time is not known but certainly must have been small. The at- 
tacking party was finally beaten off. There were scattering depre- 
dations made afterward. 

At the beginning of the year 1757, the garrison consisted of Capt. 
Bradbury at £4 per month: T. Fletcher. Lieut., at £3 and Benja- 
min Burton ditto, with 36 other men. No action of importance 
took place this year." 

The year 1758 found six men stationed at Burton's block-house. 
They were: Benjamin Burton Sergeant, at £1 los per Mo. Thomas 
Carney, Christian Power, Joseph Andrews, John Burton, Cornelius 
Thornton atid John Greene, centinals at 24s per Mo." In Augvtst. 
the last stand of the Maine Indian tribes was made when with their 
French allies, forming a party of 400 men, the fort at St. Georges 
vas attacked. The arrival of Governor Pownal about 36 hours be- 
fore the attack, with a powerful company of defenders, probably 
saved the St. Georges settlements from complete destrtiction. 

The war was soon over bitt Btirton remained at his garrison tilling 
the soil until his death. 

There is some dispute over the date of Burton's death. Those au- 
thorities that place the date as March 21, 1763. rather than March 
21. 1762, appear to be mistaken. Such attthorities as Williamson, 
Sylvester, Me. Historical Collections series I, Vol. VII, say 1762. 
Eaton in Annals of Warren, p. 123. says. "On March 20th of this 
year (1763) Capt. Benjamin Burton, who ten years before erected 
the stone b'ock-house and commanded the garrison there died in his 
float on the river. He had been up at the fort, but having some dis- 
pute with Capt. North, refused to stay there, and set off for home m 



'"'Par'son Thomas Smith wro'te in his Journal under date of March. 26. 
17=6. "We have news from St. Georges that a partv of Indians the day 
before yesterday killed two young men and scalped a third." 

Smiith & Deane's Journals p. 165. 

"Annals of Warren, p. 98. 

"Ibid, p. 107. 



54 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



a very cold night. The recently formed ice prevented his landing ; 
he was seen next morning opposite McCarter's and people went to 
his assistance but found him froze to death." 

The loss of Captain Burton was great to the community. He had 
proved himself a worthy, upright man, honest in his dealings with 
his fellow men and sound in judgment. He had been of great assist- 
ance in defeating the savages in Eastern Maine. Although not a 
professional Indian killer, he was feared by the Penobscots as per- 
haps no other man was feared. To him went the honor of having 
killed a chief, an awestriking feat in the eyes of the savages. 
Afaine may well cherish the memory of this mighty defender of her 
t&rly eastern settlements. 



SUMMER STREAMS 

(From April Airs, by Bliss Carman.) 
All day long beneath the sun 
Shining through the fields they run, 

Singing in a cadence known 
To the seraphs round the throne. 

And the traveller drawing near 
Through the meadow, halts to hear 

Anthems of a natural joy 
No disaster can destroy. 

AH night long from set of sun 
Through the s'tarry woods they run. 

Singing through the purple dark 
Songs to make a traveller hark. 

All night long, when winds are low, 
Underneath my window go 

The immortal happy streams, 
Making music through my dreams. 



YORK COUNTY TEACHERS' INSTITUTE 



55 



Officers and Members of York 
County Teachers' Institute 

(Contributed by Hknrv M. Packard) 

President, Richard M. Chapman^ M. B. E., Biddeford ; secretaries, Abner 
Mitchell, Esq., Alfred, and Charles H. Milliken, Saco ; principals, William 
B. Fowle, Esq., Newton, Mass., and Cyrus Peirce, Newton, Mass., asso- 
ciates, Calvin Cutter, M. D., Warren, Mass., Benjamin F. Rowe, Merri- 
mack, N. H.^ and Miss Emily Shaw, Nantucket, Mass., lecturers, Hon. Elisha 
M. Thurston, Charlestown, William B. Fowle, Esq., Newton. Mass., Calvin 
Cutter, M. D., Warren. Mass., Cyrus Peirce, Newton, Mass., ard Benjamin 
F. Rowe, Merrimack, N. H., Committee on resolutions and publication, 
Horace Piper, Biddeford, Abner Mitchell, Alfred, William Allen, Alfred, 
William H. Wiggin, Sanford, and Isaac M. Trafton, Newfield. 



MEMBERS. 



Jordan H. Abbott, Shapleigh 

Charles Bean, Limington 

William E. Bowker, Biddeford 

Arthur C. Burbank, Limerick 

Albert L. Cleaves, Kennebunkport 

Frederick Cole, Cornish 

John A. Dennett, South Berwick 

Thomas H. Emery, Buxton 

Walter Haines, Saco 

John Hanscom, Saco 

Oliver S. Hasty, Limerick 

Georse Hurd, Oothcaloga, Geo. 

M. W. Leavitt, Biddeford 

Albert Leavitt, Waterboro' 

Ivory E. Libby, Saco 

John B. Lowell, Biddeford 

John D. Marston, Saco 

Frank Mellen, Saco 

Harr'son T. McKusick. Corni.'-h 

Charges H Milliken. Biddeford 

Toseph H. Moody. York 

D. S. Parker, Biddeford 

T)avid W. Pende^'^er. Cornish 

Horace Piner. Biddeford 

Toseph A. "^ewall. Biddeford 

Roscoe G. Smith. Saro 

T. F. Stearns. Biddeford 

John A. Swett, York 

J. W. Towne, Kennebunkport 



William Allen, Alfred 

Alvah H. Bedell, Biddeford 

Oliver M. Boynton, Buxton 

John L. Burnham, Alfred 

Osmon H. Cobb, Buxton 

Frederick A. Day, Biddeford 

George B. Elden, Buxton 

Albion Gile, Alfred 

Char'es S. Haley. Hollis 

Henri B. Haskell, Biddeford 

Charles E. Hill, Limerick 

William Leavitt, Jr., Buxton 

C. F. Leavitt, Waterboro' 

Asa Libby, Limerick 

Ivory Lord, Saco 

Sylvester Marr, Limington 

Willis Mason, Saco 

James Meserve, Hollis 

Hiram Milliken, Saco 

Abner Mithell, Alfred 

David O Mou'ton, Parsonsfield 

B. F. Peirce, Waterboro' 

Simon G. Philbrook, Biddeford 

Frark W. Prav. Sbap'oigh 

I. F. Skee'e, S'lco 

Loring T. Staples. Limington 

Horace Stuart, Saco 

Benjamin N. Towle, Freedom, N. H. 

Isoac M. Trafton, Newfield 



5,6 SI'RA(;UE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



John B. Varncy, South Berwick 
William H. Wiggin. Sanford 
Lucinda K. Allen, Springvale 
Nancy Bailey, Parsonsfield 
Delia Bradbury, Buxton 
Abby Brown, Baldwin 
Harriet M. Chase, York 
Abby H. Deering, Waterboro' 
Sarah Elden, Buxton 
Elizabeth C. Goodsoe, Kittery 
Maria C. Grey, Biddeford 
Frances Hasty, Hollis 
Esther P. Hayes, Limerick 
Charlotte Hern, Saco 
Lucinda Leavitt, Waterboro' 
Violette W. Littlefield, Biddeford 
Mary Littlefield. Wells 
Sarah L. Low, Springvale 
Martha J. Miles, Newmarket, N. H. 
Ann Louisa Miitchell, Alfred 
M. E. Morse, Biddeford 
Catherine Parcher, Saco 
Almira Raynes, York 
Triphena Rcmick, York 
Elizabeth H. Rounds, Buxton 
Harriet H. Shapleigh, Kittery 
Catharine Simpson, York 
Mary L. Staples, Newfield 
Philenia A. Stephens, Shapleigh 
Mariam Stimson, Limerick 
Mary A. Talpey, York 
C. P. Tatterson, South Berwick 
Caroline A. Tatterson, So. Berwick 
Lois A. Tuck. Biddeford 
Mary A. Walker, Lyman 
Maria L. Witham, Sanford 



Ebenezer Wentworth, Buxton 
Sarah J. Allen, Sanford 
Sarah L. Ayer, Newfield 
Nancy P. Bedell, Biddeford 
Abby M. Bragdon, York 
Sarah Brown, Eajt Baldwin 
Frances M. Curtis, Biddeford 
Asenath P. Dyke, Sebago 
Alma A. Everett, Biddeford 
Sarah A. Goodwin, Shapleigh 
Susan E. Hasty^ Portland 
L. Frances Hayes, Limerick 
Deborah R. Hayes, Limerick 
Abby T. Hill, Hollis 
Julia A. Lin-dsey, Shapleigh 
Amanda M. Littlefield. Biddeford 
Frances F. Lord, Parsonsfield 
Betsey L. Mar^ston, Effingham, N. H. 
Sarah M. MitcheH, Alfred 
Mary A. Moody, York 
Lucy A. Murch, Hollis 
Angeline Parcher, Biddeford 
Mary Jane Reed, Biddeford 
Abby A. Rogers^ Saco 
Mary E. Sawyer, Hollis 
Hannah Simpson, Eliot 
Abba Sparrow, Biddeford 
Olivia Stearns, Lovell 
Anna Stimpson, Saco 
Lydia Stoue, Kennebunkport 
Mary Tatterson, South Berwick 
Lucy A. Tatterson, South Berwick 
Joanna Thompson, Biddeford 
Caroline Tuck, Biddeford 
Mary J. Windship, Philips 



From Reverend MeVin Sherburne Hutchins, pastor of the Congre- 
gational Church, IMiilhps, Maine: 
"My Dear Mr. Sprague : — 

Just a word to tell you 'that I thoroughly enjoy your Journal, and consider 
your work in publishing and editing such a periodical t > be most importaTit 
for our State. 

I was very much disappointed not to be able to attend the Congregational 
Conference at Dover and Foxcroft this week, I had hoped to look you uo 
,-uid make your personal acquaintance. My vocation is preaching the Gospel 
hi't T mtend mv n vocation to be Maine Historical researdi. 

If I can ever be of any assistance to you please consider me at yo'ir 
service." 



GRA\E OF MARY CHAUX'CY 



57 



The Fascinating Grave of Mary 

Chauncy 



18 



(By Justin Henry Shaw) 

And all about the wild birds flit and call, 
And but a stone's throw southward, 'the blue sea 
Rolls sparkling in and sings incessantly. 
Lovely as any dream the peaceful place. 

— Celia Thaxter, "In Kittcry Churchyard".^'' 




Picture of the Old Stone 
THE EPITAPH: 

In this dark, silent Mansion of the Dead, 

A lovely Mother, and sweet Babe, are laid. 

Of ev'ry Virtue of her Sex possest. 

She charm'd the World, and made a Hu.'band blest. 

Of such a Wife, O righteous Heaven, bereft. 

What Joy for me, what Joy on Earth, is left? 

Still from mv inmost Soul, the Groans arise, 



"The present spelling of the family name is Chauncey. 
'From The Poems of Celia Thaxter, page 59. 



58 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Still flow the Sorrows, ceaseless from my Eyes. 

But why these Sorrows, £o profuse'y shed? 

'I hey may add to but ne'er can raise the Dead. 

I soon shall follow tl.e same dreary Way, 

That leads, and opens, 'to the Coasts of Day, 

There clasp them both, upon the happy Shore, 

And Bliss shall join, nor Death shall part us more. 

Mary Chauncy, Wife of Char'.es Chaurcy, and Daughter to the Honble. 
Richard Cutt Esqr. died April 23d. 1758, in the 24th. Year of her Age, with 
her Infant Son Charles Chauncy. 

The quiet isolated old Cutts^" cemetery in Kittery Point is a part 
of the large, coast-bound farm of Mr. John Thaxter, on Cutts- 
Dartington, improperly and commonly called Cutts Island; and the 
farm of Mr. Thaxter is a part of the va'uable estate that has come 
down from Captain Francis Champernowne, through the Cutts. 

Captain Francis Champernowne married the widow of Robert 
Cutt of Kittery, sometime subsequent to 1675. By his will. Captain 
Champernowne left the greater part of his estate in Kittery to 
her, and her children, Mary. Bridget, Sarah, Elizabeth and Robert 
Cutt. Cutt, also had left a considerable fortune for those days, 
inventoried at £8yo. Mr. Thaxter's farm residence is on the exact 
site of Captain Champernowne's "Upper House." 

Stackpole (page 334) says that Richard Cutt (brother to Robert) 
was 

a major, justice, councillor, se'ectman. and deacon, one of the most promi- 
nent men of his time and place. He had a luxurious and hospitable resi- 
dence on Cutts Island 

On a stone that forms a part of the right gateway wall of this 

ancient resting place, is the following inscription: 

Capt. Francis Champernowne 

Born 1614 

Died T6S7 

Many of the Cutts Family 

1687— 1873 

Taptain Champernowne's grave is covered by a cairn, perhaps the 
on^y memorial or distinguished feature of this kind in Kittery. The 
jjoet. John Albee. has written of the spot, and his verse was included 
b\ Longfellow in the second volume of "Poems and Places — New 
]^.: gland." John Elwyn of Portsmouth has also contributed lines 
on this grave. Mrs. Thaxter's verses are of course much better 



'"The origiral form of the family npme was Cutt. 



GRA\'E OF MARY CHAUXCY 59 

An article in "The New England Genealogical and x\ntiquarian 
Kegister" (July 1848) Vol. II, page 276, entitled Notices of the 
Cittts Family, says: "Hon. Richard Cutts, Esq., and twenty-one 
others are buried in this cemetery.'' But the aboniinab'.e way in 
which the Chauncy epitaph has been given in that article makes one 
hesitate to quote any particular part of what has been printed under 
that head. 

Close by the grave of Champernowne, and within a few feci of 
his historic cairn, is undoubtedly the most interesting memorial in 
the town. It marks the grave of Mary Chauncy. pictured herewath. 
Mary Chauncy's stone is the only one that stands of all that have 
been put up ; some of them were standing within the recollections 
of the present generation. Bvit for a number of years the trees 
ard vines were thick, and the place was quite forgot, and the fallen 
stones have now entirely disappeared. Once, this stone had also 
fallen over, but it was erected again by Mr. Thaxter. There are 
touches of moss and lichens and rust on it. but the old slate is in a 
very fine state of preservation. Every letter of the verse is care- 
fully carved, and the italics are perfectly formed and legible. One 
wonders who the ancient artist was. He followed well the copy 
for the lines. The words given here are an actual copy of the stone, 
carefully made and verified in every respect to preserve their great 
lilerary beauty. 

The verse tells by natural inference the story of a maternal trage- 
dy on that long past April day. It was here on Cutts-Dartington 
that Chauncy probably met the beautiful Mary and lived with her. 
and it was here also at the "luxurious and hospitable" Cutt home 
that she probab'y died. One can only imagine the possibilities that 
may have been the cause of her suffering and death, at her early 
age, with her child, and we deplore the lack of saving medical skill. 

One cannot doubt that the lines are the composition of the hus- 
band, Charles Chauncy. They are unmistakably also a part of the 
sad story of his own life, one of the strange biographies in the town. 
He was perhaps the most scholarly man in Kitterv at that time. 
Mr. Brewster fin his "Ramb'es") has given us the substantial and 
ii.teresting facts of the family, and recollections of Charles in Ports- 
niouth, where he later lived, and died. 

He was the great-grandson of Charles Chauncy, second president 
of Elarvard College, and after studying theologv and breaking 
down in mental health, he came to Kitterv Point and entered the 



6o SI'RAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



office of his uncle, Sir William PepperrCil. He was a graduate or 
Harvard himself; but more than this, he was evidently a scho.a; 
by nature. In spite of the malady which seems to have lurkea 
within him and to have been transmitted, the man himself was ap- 
parently of the finer sort, and had made the most of the better 
thoughts of his time, and he had probably struggled to keep his owi' 
mental health. 

He survived Mary by fifty-one years, (almost a lifetime) and 
became the father of thirteen children, having married Joanna 
Gerrish of Cjerrish-Dartington only two years after Mary's untimely 
death. Mrs. Thaxter understood the possibility of this, for in he" 
p( em she also said : 

Doubtless he found another mate before 
He followed Mary 'to the happy shore. 

The first son of this second union was also called Charles, who 
a: sixteen vears of age became insane and continued so until a week 
before his death at twenty-eight. This boy is buried in another 
cemetery at Kittery Point. The lines on this boy's stone show also 
that in spite of what must have been a great grief to his father, it 
was splendidly overcome by the finer considerations of an affection- 
ate fatherly nature.^^ Their fourth son, Samuel, who became a sea 
captain, committed suicide ; and the son of this captain, who was 
also named Charles, died in the insane retreat of that time at Con- 
cord, N. H. 

But one never tires of the changeless, quiet features of that little 
round face, carved so many years ago out of the cold, blue slate. 
Ihe classic braid and circle of cherubic hair, and the academic 
spread of the litt'e wings that brood above the words, secluded and 
still, complete an epitai)h which one may visit again and again, and 
each time find something of fresh interest to interpret or only 
wonder at. in the history of Kittery. 

And Charles Chauncy does not even rest beside her in this quiet 
old p'ace, btit is hm-icd in Cotton's cemetery in Portsmouth. 



^'1'liis other old cemetery is at the junction of the old and new Harbor 
Road-. a'o'.iLr Clianncx's Creek. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms: For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $i.oo. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



The first law of History is not to dare tell a lie, the second 
not to fear to tell the truth; besides let the Historian he beyond 
all suspicion of favoring or hating any whomsoever. 

PONTIFF, LEO XHI. 



BROWSINGS BY THE EDITOR IN HIS OWN LIBRARY 

11. 

Both the Massachusetts and New Hampshire historical societies 
have assembled in their volumes of collections, proceedings and 
other books issued by them, a mass of literature relating to Maine": 
colonial period. 

We do not have these in our private collection on Maine, but the 
student working in the State Library at Augusta has them always 
a+ hand to guide him in his searchings. 

The late Charles Francis Adams, Jr., contributed to the Massa- 
chusetts Society an historical monograph published in Vol. 22 of 
its proceedings, and reprinted by the LTniversity Press. Cambridge. 
1883. This relates to "Sir Christopher Gardiner Knight'' who ap- 
peared in Boston in 1630. 

This we find on our shelves and it is a strange ta'e of a remarka- 
ble character who appeared in New England in April. 1630. His 
career c'ose'y identified with Maine, is intertwined with romance 
and adventure. 

It is the peculiar privilege of the American historian to be able 
to trace his narrative to its origin by means of documentary evi- 
dence, and thus relate facts rather than fable or tradition. 

Mr. Adams in introducing his subject to the reader says: 
Such melodramatic personages are not con^mon in -Massachusetts his- 
tory, ard accnrding'y Sir Christopher long since attracted t'^e notice of the 



62 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



New England poets and writers of fiction. Here were great possibilities. 
Miss Sedgwick was the first to avail herself of them, for as early as 1827 
she introduced 'the knight, under the name of Sir Philip Gardiner, into her 
novel of Hope Leslie. He is the walking vil'ain of that now forgotten tale. 
The historian M'otley next tried his hand upon him in Iiis story of Merry- 
mount published in 1849. The same year Whii'tier incidentally touched 
upon him in Margaret Smith's Journal; and then Mr. John '\\ Adams, in 
1856, went over the ground once more in his Knight of the Goi'den Melice. 
Finally, in 1873. Longfellow put the Rhyme of Sir Christopher Gardiner 
in the mouth of 'the Landlord as the last of the Ta'es of a Wayside Inn. 
Both Motley and Adams, as well as Whittier and Longfellow, present the 
knight under his own name, and, so to speak, in his proper person. They 
adhere miore or less to the record. Miss Sedgwick does not. But they have 
all made somewhat droll work with the facts of history ; and, the historians' 
themseilves have iri this respect not greatly bettered matters 

Gardiner's orig-in and family history are rather obscm-e. He 
claimed descent from Stephen Gardyner, Bishop of Winchester and 
Lord Chancellor of Queen Mary, yet it has never been established 
with accuracy. 

Although born a protestant, Bradford and others assert that he 
renounced this faith and became a member of the church of Rome. 
This however is in question and was never fully settled. 

Regarding his claim to knighthood Adams believes that : 

His tit'le was of a doubtful character, for in one place he is spoken of as 
a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, having received the honor at Jerusalem; 
while in another it is as a Knight of the Golden Melice. But that he had a 
right to some title would seem to be estab'irhed by the fact that at a later 
day he was referred to in official proceedings in England as Sir Christopher 
Gardiner, Knight. 

It seems to be very well settled by those who have written of that 
period that Sir Christopher visited New England as a du\v accred- 
ited, though secret agent of Gorges. 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason obtained their 
charter or grant from James I. to the most of the Province of 
Maine west of the Kennebec, and a part of New Hampshire, in 1622. 

In 1623, Gorges had sent his son. Captain Robert Gorges, out to 
Massachusetts Bay in charge of a company who was to settle there. 
He had secured for Captain Robert the grant of a domain, .\dams 
Fays : 

It covered, as nearly as its limits can now be fixed, a tract just north of 
Boston, including the whole shore from the mouth of the Charles to Lynn, 
and interior as far back as Concord and Sudbury. 

Robert Gorges did not take actual possession of this domain, but 
never abandoned his claim to it. Stibscquentlv, in 1628, the Conn- 



BROWSINGS IN THE EDITOR'S LIBRARY 63 



cil for New England, with the assent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, 
granted to the Massachusetts Company a large tract which included 
this. But Gorges contended that the subsequent grant was made 
reserving all vested rights under the first one. Robert Gorges die J 
and whatever rights he had passed to his brother John, who con- 
veyed portions of it to Sir William Brereton and John Oldham. 
The Massachusetts Company denied the validity of these conv'^'y- 
ances ; and besides this claimed that the great charter of 16.29, -"^^"t- 
tled it against Gorges beyond all dispute. It then became a matter 
of actual possession. Gorges claimed that he already had i.; by the 
settlement there of several inhabitants, in 1624, under the directum 
of Captain Robert. The Massachusetts Company immedia^^ely pro- 
ceeded to circumvent all of this by hurrying out instrvictions to 
Endicott. who was at Salem, to forthwith "send forty or fifty per- 
sons to Massachusetts Bay to inhabit there." This he did in June, 
1629, which was the beginning of the settlement of Charlestown. 
Under these circumstances it is evident that Gorges deemed it wise 
tc have someone on the ground to represent him and protect his 
interests. From letters and documents found among Sir Christo- 
pher Gardiner's belongings it seems clear that he was selected for 
this purpose. 

It is well known that the Massachusetts leaders regarded Gorges 
as their rival and possible enemy. He was of the Church of Eng- 
land which fact undoubtedly intensified their feelings against him. 

When Sir Christopher came and was in the company of the 
Gorges settlers and known to have visited Thomas Morton, well 
known as an agent for Gorges, their suspicions were instantly 
aroused. 

That Governor Bradford conceived it his duty to interview the 
stranger is apparent for he records the fact that he was accom- 
panied by servants, and : 

A comly yonge woman, whom he caled his cousin, but it was suspected 
that she C after the Italian maner) was his concubine. 

In other words, as Mr. Adams observes. "Sir Christopher com- 
mitted the folly of bringing a mistress out into the wilderness with 
him." Naturally the Puritan magistrates became inquisitorial as to 
his antecedents and object in visiting Boston. 

They could not hale him into their courts for acting in behalf 
cf Gorges. 

But it was not long before thev were informed that he had left 
behind two wives in England. 



64 SFRACU'R'S JOl'RXAL OF MAIXE HISTORY 

The name of the young woman who accompanied him from the 
North of Eng.and to America was Mary Grove. She has attracted 
much attention among historical writers, poets and novelists. It h 
quite certain that she lived with him while he was living near Boston. 

'l he authorities did not attempt any legal proceedings against 
him regarding his relations with Mary Grove, hut they did make 
some move towards prosecuting him for the crime of bigamy in 
Eng.and. Sir Christopher learning of this instead of remaining 
and facing his adversaries made his escape into the wilderness in- 
tending, as it is supposed to reach the Dutch settlement at Manhat- 
tan. He never succeeded in doing this. Soon after his departure 
some Indians informed the governor of his whereabouts and were 
authorized to take him and bring him before the magistrates which 
they did. After thus having him in their possession they were at a 
loss to know just what disposition to make of him, for in order to 
fasten any crime upon him, they would have to send to luigland for 
evidence. It was not long before they concluded to allow him to 
go on his way. 

Thomas Purchase was the first settler on the Androscoggin within 
the limits of what is now the town of Brunswick. Maine. There 
he had cleared up quite a large farm and also dealt extensively with 
the Indians buying furs and peltry of them ; and was also a packer 
and shipper of salmon from the Androscoggin to Boston. At about 
this time he made a trip to Boston to transact business and, inci- 
dentally to find himself a wife of which he stood in much need. 
While there he fell in with Sir Christopher and Marv Grove. It wa> 
a case of "love at first sight," with he and Mary and after a short 
courtship they were married there and she returned with him to his 
home in Maine; and oddH' enough Sir Christopher went a^ong with 
them and had a home with them for some months. Tust what activ- 
ities he was engaged in whi^e a sojourner in Maine is not quite 
c'ear. On'y one record has been found relating to him at that time 
and is in the records of the first General Court of the Province of 
Maine. heVl at Saco, by "the Worshipful Thomas Gorges." in 1640. 
The record reads as follows : 

Richard Tucker cometh into this Court and declareth that nine years 
since, or thereabouts, there came one Sir Chrisitopher Gardiner to the plain- 
tiff in the name of the defendant. Thomas Purchase, and borrowed of him a 
wnrming-pan. which co^t here in this country 12s. 6d.. which tl-ie defendant 
hath all this time and sti'l doth wrongfully detain from the plaintiff. .\nd 
atso the said Sir Christopher did six months after, or thereabouts, buy of 
the ])laiptiff a new fow'ingniece for 40s.. which lie promised to pay witliin 



EDITORIAL 65 



a month after, whicli money boith for the warming-pan and, tlie piece the 
plaintiff hath oftentimes 'demanded of the defendant, who doth still refuse 
to pay the same, to the damage of the plaintiff at least ^S sterling, for 
which the plaintiff commenceth his action of trespass in the case, against 
the defendant in this court, and humbly desireth a legal hearing according 
to law. r. Purchase denies ever authorizing Sir C. Gardiner to buy any 
\. arming-pan' or fowlingpiece for him, etc. Verdict for the plaintiff, £2^ 
I2S. 6d. for the two articles, 2d damages, 12s. 6d costs of 'the court. 

It appears that he remained at Brunswick all through the winter 
^Vi' 1631-32 and far into the succeeding summer. He arrived in 
England from Maine on the 15th day of Atigust, 1632. . 

At this time a formidable attack was made on the Massachusetts 
Bay Company. That he entered into it with much energy appears 
from the records. He denounced Governor Winthrop, the itiagis- 
Irates, and the people generally of Massachusetts. He declared that 
they were "traitors and rebels against his majesty, with divers 
o.her most scandalous and opprobrious speeches.'' dilating freely on 
the wrongs he had suffered at their hands. 

The managers of the company abotit this time learned of the 
story of his two wives and attempted to retaliate by proceeding 
against him for this. Whatever investigation they made was not 
fruitful of results. Adams says: 

Either the women had never existed, or they could no longer be found, 
or the evidence somehow broke down. 

The assault made upon the company did not prevail and it came 
ofif victorious. After this all trace of him was lost in England. 

From all that can be learned Mary Grove outlived her youthful 
i. "discretions, and she and her husband Thomas Purchase live I hap- 
l)ily together on the banks of the River Androscoggin until tiic 
t'me of her death which occurred in Boston, June 7th, 1656. 



Mr. Arthur G. Staples, managing editor of the Lewiston Journal, 
wields a facile and versatile pen and is one of Maine's ablest news- 
paper writers of today. He is also a public speaker of note- and 
always welcomed upon every forum. Whether speaking or writing 
he ever displays sjiarkling bits of charming humor, and makes 
thrusts of wit that are keen and yet gentle. i' 

He is just now doing one of the most interesting literary stunts' 
that we have seen in any of the Maine papers for many a day. At 
the top of the editorial page of the Journal, is every day a little 
double column screed of abotit 600 words signed " A. G. S." and 
entitled : " Just Talks — On Common Themes." We have perused 



66 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



nearly every one and regard them as real classics. They are full 
of more or less great thoughts and philosophy. In speaking of 
philosophical writers, the regular stock phrase is to call their say- 
ings " quaint." Arthur's stuff is quaint all right, and it is also- 
worth while. It is good, every day philosophy that constantly 
touches a responsive chord. 



The Maine Lihrary Ikdletini, published quarterly at Augusta^ 
Maine, " in the interests of the liljraries of the State, by the Maine 
Library Commission " is always a welcome visitor. 

Its last issue is the first number of its seventh volume and con- 
tains 20 pages of excellent reading pertaining to Maine Libraries 
and Maine literary and historical subjects. 

Since Hon. Henry E. Dunnack became State Librarian this pub- 
lication has been constantly improving. 



Hon. Harold M. Sewall has been presented with an unusually 
unique and valuable gift, especially appreciated by the recipient 
as it was prompted by the generosity and affection of Dr. G. Lang- 
try Crockett of Thomaston. When Major General Henry Knox,, 
the artillery commander in the Revolutionary War and friend of 
Washington, took possession of the land granted him in the Waldo 
patent for his services during the war, he was desirous of obtaining^ 
an accurate understanding of the resources of the region and he 
secured the services of a young Frenchman, Monsieur Mornvel to 
make a survey. The gift to Mr. Sewall is the journal containing 
the results of this survey by the French engineer and is entitled 
" Journey of Observation of the Waldo Patent, 1792." P)eneath 
the title in the handwriting of General Knox and signed by him is. 
the explanatory paragraph : 

" By Mr. Montvel, a judicious young French gentleman, who- 
was educated at the Royal academy in Paris." The booklet is 
bound in brown leather and the clear and scholarly handwriting of 
the young PVenchman is still legible and is fflled witli valuable 
information. Xo duplicate is in existence and it is not onlv a trib- 
ute of friendship for Mr. Sewall from Dr. Crockett, but is also- 
a tribute to Mr. Sewall's library, which is filled with literary works 
of high value and on the shelves of which this gift will be given 
honorable place. 



STATE EDUCATORS 67 

How Our State Educators Aid the 
Study of Maine History 

Recently we have had our attention called to a pamphlet issued 
by the State of Maine Educational Department in 1916. It is 
entitled " High School Libraries and Book List." It states that it 
is " A pamphlet describing the scope of High School libraries 
together with a suggested list of books." 

It does not profess to suggest a line of text-books, only books of 
Preference and books that will be of material benefit to the youth 
in such reading as they ought to pursue as scholars in the high 
schools. 

Some of the books listed may now be rare, yet they are all acces- 
sible in the State library at Augusta and in all of our larger public 
libraries in the State. 

And the authors of this pamphlet truly say, " The State Library 
Commission places at the disposal of schools a large amount of 
material," and they inform them of the traveling libraries available 
for all of the towns in the state, etc. 

We turned to its lists of books recommended for the study of 
history. They embraced many authors on Ancient, European and 
American history. In all about one hundred and thirteem. And 
forty-eight books on American history were approved. 

Yet, in all those lists, not a single one of the hundreds of volumes 
which have been published jrelating to the history of Maine was 
referred to or mentioned directly or indirectly. And this from the 
" State of Maine Educational Department." 

In the language of the man of the street, " can you beat it? " 

We are not criticizing their recommendations so far as they go. 

They include some of the very best authors on American history, 
such as Parkman, Fiske, Lodge, Channing, Halsey, etc. 

The contention of the Journal is — has been from the first and 
will be as long as its life is spared — that this studied and deter- 
mined policy of our school authorities at Augusta, of ignoring and 
passing by Maine history with' every appearance of contempt is 
fundamentally and absolutely wrong. 

The influence of this reactionary and retrogressive view point of 
our State school directors has evidently extended in other direc- 
tions. 



68 SPRAGL'E'S JOURNAL OF MAIXE HISTORY 



In the "State budgett" for 191 7, everything in the way of sHght 
a])pro])riations along this hne which with one or two exceptions 
had formerly been the policy of the State since 1863 was ruthlessly 
slaughtered and the legislature followed its edict. 

The journal's motto, platform or battle cry — whatever you may 
be pleased to call it, is now and ever will be : FIRST TEACH 
THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE THEIR OWN 
TOWN, COUNTY, AND STATE AND YOU HAVE GONE 
A LONG WAY TOWARDS TEACHING THEM TO KNOW 
AND LOVE THEIR COUNTRY. 

We are not advising against the scholars of our i)ul)lic schools 
reading any of the books approved by this pamphlet. 

W^e onlv desire and insist that these mental advisers of what the 
scholars of Maine should read shall themselves sometime, compre- 
hend the fact that from 1^)03 to this hour the history of Maine is 
rich in subjects that are fascinating and invigorating food for the 
child's imagination and for the development of what is spiritual 
anid artistic. 

It is not necessary to cite Macaulay's renowned essay on Mitford's 
history of Greece, to demonstrate the value of the Greek and fable 
stuff. 

All the books in this pamphlet should be read and studied by 
high school scholars. All that these savants need is a broadening 
of their vision. 

It should l)ecome large enough to understand that Maine has a 
distinct history all its own, which should be known and sttidied 
as such. 

To revert to om- first thought it seems to us that the designers 
of this pamphlet could at least have called attention to the 46 vol- 
umes issued by the Maine Historical Society, and to scores of other 
works on Maine history to be found in our public and j)rivate 
libraries. 



MR. FLAGCi'S INDEX OF MAINE REVOLUTIONARY 
PENSIONERS 

r)\ving to an unavoidable delay by the j)rinting establisliment 
which does the Journal's work, the Revolutionary Index was left 
out of this issue. It will be continued in our next number when all 
of the names under "C" and all or a part of "D" will appear. 

This valuable series will continue until the entire list is published. 



PHARMACY OF THE RED MEN 69 

Pharmacy of the Red Man 

By Ho5L\CE M. liuRNiiAM, Ph. G., Old Town. Maine 

Read before the Maine Pharmaceutical Association, June 28, 
1916. 

It has been suggested that an article on The Pharmacy of the 
Red Man might, in a general way, be of interest to the members 
of the Association, not that there is anything to learn which would 
advance our art but that it is no doubt similar to the birth of Phar- 
macy among other races. In the case of the Indian the Physician 
and Pharmacist are one as prescribing and preparing medicine are 
done by the medicine man or medicine woman. The Indian believes 
that certain ones are endowed by nature with qualities not possessed 
by all which enable them to diagnose and treat disease with greater 
success than their fellows. There is a tradition that in early days 
before the coming of the wdiite man it was necessary for the would 
be medicine man to undergo some trying ordeal to prove his fitness 
for the office. As a general thing I have found it impossible to 
learn the diseases for which the drugs are vised as the Indians do 
not know the English name of the complaints they treat. To illus- 
trate. Dr. Sockalixis once told me in answer to an inquiry regard- 
ing ladies' slipper ( Cypripedium ). That is woman medicine. This 
is used by them as a sedative in nervous conditions and one might 
infer that the men are not troubled with complaimts of this kind 
nor do I believe the average Indian is. I have not learned that 
they used anything from the mineral kingdom and but one animal 
substance, Castor, given as an Indian woman told me. mostly to 
young women from fifteen to eighteen years of age. An emmena- 
gogue. They had infusions, decoctions, poultices, ointments and 
plasters. Oils and fats were also used as liniments. Roiling was 
dome in dishes of birch bark placed on coals, hot ashes or stones 
heated by fire beneath or heated stones were dropped into the 
liquid. In the case of infusions and decoctions the drugs were 
steeped singly or in combination. S'uch (|uantities to a given 
volume of water as in the judgment of the dispenser was necessary. 
\Mieni ready it was decanted and given the i)atient as needed. To 
relieve and to prevent chafing (as of infants) finely powdered 
hemlock bark was used. Plasters were made bv evaporating a 
decoction of the barks of beech (Fiigiis grandifolia ) and hackma- 



70 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



tack (Larix lariciiia) to the consistency of an extract and incorpo- 
rating with pitch of the spruce obtained by stripping the bark from 
the trunk of the standing tree and scorching the wood, reminding 
one of the method used by the natives of Central America to obtain 
Balsam of Peru. An ointment was made of fir balsam and animal 
fat. In making poultices various things were used among these, 
the rootstock of the white pond lily {Costalia odorata). For years 
I sold two old Indians butternut bark used by them as a laxative; 
in early days this must have been obtained elsewhere than on the 
Penobscot as the tree is not indigenous to that river though com- 
mon on the Kennebec and, I am told, on the St. John. I have 
been assured by the Indians that no one would take any contagious 
disease if he kept in his mouth and chewed the rhizome of the sweet 
flag. Today both male and female attend and prepare medicine 
for the sick but the campfire has given way to the cook stove and 
the bark dish to those of earthern and metal. In the early days 
if an acceptable and satisfactory gift did not accompany the call 
for his services the medicine man demanded and received as a 
preliminary, his fee from the patient or his family. It might be 
w'ampum, the best bow, a quantity of arrows, moccasins, furs, veni- 
son or other food, but now when employed by the Indian agent 
to attend the sick the usual fee with medicine is one dollar. If 
additional medicine is needed the price is fifty cents a quart. 

The following is a list of the drugs used by the Penobscot Indians 
today: Castor Castorenm: Cleavers Galium Aparlne; Black Cohosh 
Cimicifuga racemosa; Blackberry root Riibus; Butternut Bark 
Jiiglans cmcrea; Bloodroot Sanguinaria ; Rockbrake PoUypodiiim 
zndgarc ; Crawley Root Corallorrhiza odoutorhiaa; Red Cohosh 
Acica rubra; White Cohosh Actca alba; Sweet Flag Aeon's Cala- 
mus; Gravel Plant Epigaea- repots; Hair Cap Moss Polystleu)u 
aerosticlwides; Hemlock Bark Tsuga eauadcnsis; Juniper Berries 
Juniperus depressa; Ladies' Slipper Cypripedium hirsutum; Spike- 
nard Aralia raeemosa; Pennyroyal Hedcoma pulegloldes; Winter- 
green Cliim\apliila umbellata; Blue Cohosh Caulophylhim thalie- 
troidcs; Pleurisy Root Ascckplas tuberosa; Scullcap Scutellaria 
lateriflora; Squaw Vine Mitehella re pens; Canada Snakeroot Asa- 
rum catiadeijse; Yellow Dock Root Rum ex erispus. 

No doubt other plants, roots and barks were employed but the 
foregoing is a fairly complete list used during the past forty years. 
From the Indians was learned the medicinal uses of many of our 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 71 

indigenous drugs. Although at the present time the treatment of 
disease among the Indians is largely im the hands of regular prac- 
titioners and medicines of the white man are generally used, there 
are those of the tribe who prefer and employ the native doctors 
and their old time remedies. 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mr. Don C. Seitz of New York, Manager of the New York World 
and a native of Maine, referring to the Journal says : 
"You are performing a valiuib'.e service indeed." 



Hon. Stanley Plummer, Dexter, Maine : 

No. I, Vol. 6, of the Journal has been received and read w^ith the usual 
full measure of appreciation. While I am giving up many things for the 
sake of war economy I cannot afiford to give up the Journal, and am pleased 
to enclose my check to pay for next Vol. in advance. With the hope that 
your life and health may be spared many years to continue the good and 
necessary work vou are now doing." 



William G. Clark. Attorney at Law, Des Moines. Iowa : 

"I am glad to receive your interesting volume and enclose draft therefor. 
"I note that our old friend, G. V. Edes, was related to the publisher of 
the famous Boston Gazette. I had often wondered about that. Have you 
ever examined Josiah Quincey's volume of Massachusetts Reports? It 
covers the Revolutionary Period and is called "VoHime i" but is not, I think, 
usually included in the reports of that state. It is of very great interets 
from a historic standpoint and contains the language of the tory ■ chief 
justice in charging the grand jury in an endeavor to have Benjamin Edesi 
indicted for sedition. Also contains, at first hand, a very vivid description 
of the current events of that dav." 



The following list of Revolutionary Soldiers buried in Bridgton. 
Maine, cemeteries was published in the Bridgton News some vears 
ago: 

Joseph Brocklebank Asa Barker Ebenezer Choate 

Capt. John Kilborn Asjel Foster Dudley Perkins 

Joshua Doug1a=s Daniel Barnard Nathaniel Jacobs 

Nathaniel Hale John Chaplin Joshua Whitnej- 

Nathaniel Martin Phineas Ingalls John Kimball 

Cant. Jo'in Hayward Tohn Peabody 

Robert Andrews Daniel Per'ey 



^2 SP'RACU'E'S JOURXAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

How the Town of Alfred Disposed 

of Its Share of the U. S. 

Revenue Surplus, 1836-7 

By Lucius M. Pkrkins 

At the close of the war of 1812 with England the United States 
had a debt of upwards of 127,030,000 dollars. After the return 
of peace the debt was rapidly reduced, and in 1836 it had all been 
paid. It had been computed January 1st, 1836, that there would 
remain in the Ignited States treasury a surplus revenue of 27,000,- 
000 dollars. 

In i8'36 Congress passed an act for the distribution of the sur- 
plus ; loaning it to the several states in i)ro]jortion to their popula- 
tion without interest; and " to be called for by the (jovemment in 
an eiiier(jeiie\\" reserving 5,000,000 dollars. This was to be jxiid 
in four quarterly installments. Three of the payments were made, 
the fourth not made. 

Sejitember fourth, 1836, Congress passed an act postponing the 
payment of the fourth installment to Jamuary, 1839. 

The financial panic of 1837 (no doubt) so affected the revenue, 
that in 1839 the L^iited States found itself with a debt of about 
12,000,000. The change in tariff' and the Seminole war apparently 
rendered it impracticable to meet this fourth quarter's payment. 
It has wever been paid. So much for the origin of the surplus. 

The State of Maine in 1837, by its Legislature passed three sep- 
arate acts regarding the receiving and disposition of the same. 
See Laws of 1837, chapters 252-265-287. The substance of which 
is to loan it to the several towns " to be by them accounted for," 
as the state was to account for it to the United States. 

Alfred, in anticipation of this distribution of money, took action 
and called a town meeting December lolh, 1836, to petition the 
Legislature that " the money to be received from the United States, 
or a part thereof, may be appropriated for railroads or other inter- 
nal improvements." Also to petition the Legislature " for a por- 
tion of said money for the railroad from, Portland through this 
place to the Xew Hampshire line." 

This meeting was called on petition of N. D. Api)leton, J. Holmes, 
D. Goodenow, John Conant. Lvman Littlefield and John Havward, 



TOWX OF ALFRED -jt, 

and was held at the court house. \\'m. C. Allen, Nathan D. Apple- 
ton and Archabald Smith were chosen a committee to prepare " said 
petition." 

The act of the Legislature of 1837, made necessary the calling 
of a town meeting, which was done March 20, 1837. Geo. W. 
Came was moderator. 

Tlie town voted " to accept the town's apportionment of the 
money which is or may be deposited with the state by the L'nited 
States. John Holmes, Esq., be appointed to act as agent of the 
town to demand, receive, and receij^t tor this town's share of the 
money. Also voted Jeremiah Lradbury, W'm. C. Allen, Nathan 
D. Appleton, act as a committee to report at next meeting the best 
method of investing said money." 

The committee chosen at the former meeting reported, but their 
report was " rejected " and it was voted " That the whole of the 
money be apportioned by the treasurer of the town among all the 
inhabitants thereof, residing therein, etc., on loan until payment 
thereof shall be demanded by the state treasurer." 

The town treasurer, Lyman Littlefield, was to have one-half of 
•one per cent for handling the money. The two installments already 
in possession of the treasurer, he cashed and paid out. Paul Web- 
ber received $15, for taking the census of town and making a return 
to the S'ecretary of State, and a copy to the towm treasurer. 
Lyman Littlefield was paid $10 for his ex])ense for a journey to 
Portland, $3.00 for printing receipts, and a commission of one- 
half of one per cent on $1856.80 — $9.28. Geo. \\\ Came and John 
L. Grant were allowed two dollars for their trouble in April, 1837. 
In October, 1837, Lyman Littlefield was paid for distributioin of 
the third installment of $863.20 — $5 for " Procuring " $4.32 com- 
mission, the selectmen $2.00, and John Holmes $537-50 for services 
and postage. 

The receipts are two to the page of six by eight and one-half 
inches, with stub attached showing that it was Si. 33 each for the 
first payment and $.62 1-2 each for the 2nd payment. The receipts 
were kept in the old chest with lots of other papers, but now are 
bound in a book and are in the Parsons Memorial Librarv. They 
furnish a reliable list of the heads of families in 1837. and also an 
insight of the times and the dififerent way we look at mUUons now. 

I think most towns handled this matter in a similar wav. If other 
towms have their receipts, they should be carefully preserved. We 
have been too careless in these matters. 



74 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



gRlA.N:Dmother's grandmother 

By Louise Helen Coburn 
Grandmother's grandmother, through the woods 

Moose and red man were wont to roam, 
Brought her babes and her household goods 

To make in the wilderness a home. 

The Kennebec rippled beside her door, 

Or laid a crystal roadway there ; 
The shadow of pines on her cabin floor 

Took shape of Indian and hear. 

No woman for feminine service made, 

Shut from the work of the world was she ; — 

Home was a factory, life a trade, 
And Mother a captain of industry. 

She was tailor, milliner, miantua-maker, 
Upholsterer, weaver of carpet and rug, 

Chandler, soapmaker, dairy-maid, baker. 
Knitter of hose and mittens snug. 

Weaver of wool for blanket and gown, 
Weaver of linen for bed and table, 

Dyer of crimson and purple and brown, 
Spinner and broiderer as she was able. 

Twenty trades were hers to command, 
A dozen professions were hers to fill ; 

Doctor and dentist always at hand. 

Trained nurse and kindergartner at will. 

Grandmother's grandmoither's sons were bold. 

Steady of arm and keen of eye. 
Skilled to fell the white pine old. 

Taught to fear God and to scorn a lie. 

Grandmother's grandmother's girls were fair, 
Patient to take up her task again, 

Swift to labor and strong to bear, 

Makers of homes and mothers of men. 

Peacefully by the river side 

Grandmother's grandmother lies at rest ; 
The tall pines whisper to the tide, 

And drop their needles upon her breast. 



GRANDMOTHER'S GRANDMOTHER 



75 



Where cities welcome or deserts wait, 
Or prairies their yellow bounty tell, — 

Wliere the new West looks through the Golden Gate, 
Grandmother's grandmother's children dwell. 

W here commerce wheels his dizzy round, 
Where g'litters the gold in mountain mine, 

Where orange orchards smile, are found 
The sons and daughters of her line. 

Their names are writ on the honor roll 
Of every battle for freedom and right; 

Their feet have been swift in the race whose goal 
Is the wider look from the fairer height. 

The torch of itrrth and the flag of the free 
They have borne from ocean tide to tide; 

They have plarted homes from sea to sea. 
Whose fruitage ripe is the nation's pride. 

Poorer the world were, you may know, — 
Poorer and leaner and sadder the land, — 

Had grandmother's grandmother, long ago, 
To lover and husband denied her hand. 




Block House, Fort Kent 



76 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



We regret that for various reasons this nunil)er of the Jour- 
nal contains less reading matter than usuaL- The remaining issues 
of this volume will assuredly be at least equal in size to any former 
ones and probably larger. 



Mr. Fred W. Sanborn, the genial editor and publisher of the 
Norway (Maine) Advertiser, one of the live local weeklies of our 
state, during the month of June last past, made his annual fishing 
trip to Moose Head Lake. He autoed from Xorw.ay to the Piscat- 
aquis Exchange at Greenville Junction, and stopped over night at 
the Blethen House in Dover. 

He furnished the Advertiser with an interesting account of his 
journey, and the points of interest that attracted his attention along 
the way. We take therefrom the following : 

John F. Sprague, lawyer, historian ard author, was found reading and 
marking proof sheets of Sprague's Journal of Maine History. It is printed 
at the Sentinel Office in Waterville and i,6oo copies are issued quarterly 
with some i,4CO annual sul)scriliers and is on its sixth year. It has lived 
'to complete live volumes containing about 300 pages each. The volumes are 
carefully indexed and nicely liound and sell for $2.03 each. They are highly 
prized by those interested in the history of the State of Maine. I have a 
complete set. Volume one is difficult to get and sells for five dollars. I 
had four volumes sent to Don Seitz of Xew York and the first will go when 
it can be found. 

Judge Edgar C. Simith, former Judge of the Dover ^Municipal Court and 
collector of tombstone inscriptions and compiler of a liibliography of Maine 
maps, and Moses Greenleaf's papers and letters, was present. Ex-Congress- 
man Frank E. Guernsey dropped in and joined in a discussion of history, 
literature, politics and war, not omitting the recent postoffice upheaval at 
Dover and Foxcroft. 



From the Massachusetts Register for the year 1804 (page 99) we 
learn that the justices of the Circuit Court of Common Pieas foi 
Cumberland County were William Gorham of Gorham, Chief Jus- 
tice. Stephen Longfellow of Gorham, Robert Southgate of Scar- 
borough and John Frothingham of Portland were the justices. 
Special justices were WilHam Thompson af Scarborough and Isaac 
Parsons of New Gloucester. Samuel Freeman of Portland 'Was 
clerk of the coiinnon pleas and also the Register of Probate and 
William Gorham besides holding down the Chief Justiceship, was 
also the Judge of Probate. 



INOV. 



DEC. 



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CONTENTS 



77 



O. R. Emerson, M. D. 



J. J. McVetv, M. D. 




The E. & M. Hospital 

Newport, Maine 
Admits all medical and surgical cases except conta- 
gious and mental diseases 
For information, rates, etc., address: 

OLGA J. HANSON, Supt., Newport, Me. 



CONTENTS 



PAOE 

Biographic Glimpses of some Maine Men 79 

Regarding Soldiers of American Revolution 105 

Revolutionary Records of Descendants of Nathaniel Oak 112 

Alphabetical Index of Maine Revoltitionary Pensioners 117 

Relating to the War of 1812 125 

Editorial 129 

Notes and Fragments 132 

Sayings of Subscribers 134 



52 



YEARS the Insurance Man off Somerset Co. 

Never a Failure— Never a Law Suit— What more do you want? 
CHARLES FOLSOM-JONES, Skowhegan Maine 



We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 






John Andrew Peters 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI NOV. DEC. 1918, JAN. 1919 No. 3 



Biographic Glimpses of Some 
Maine Men 

JOHN ANDREW PETERS 

Bom in EllswortJi, Maine, Oct. 9, 1822. Died in Bangor, 
Maine, April 2, 1904. 

Graduate of Yale College ; studied law, was admitted to the bar. 
and had a large practice ; member of the Maine legislature 1862- 
1864; Attorney-General of Maine 1864-1866; elected as a republican 
to the fortieth, forty-first, and forty-second congresses ; appointed a 
judge of the Supreme Court of Maine, in 1872; chief justice in 
1883; resigned from the bench in 1901. 

Some years ago Maine's great statesman, James G. Blaine was 
in social converse with some trusted friends when one of them 
asked him, "whom do you regard as the greatest man in Maine?" 
Quickly and with much emphasis he answered: "John Peters of 
Bangor is by far the biggest man in our state today." 

His name was then a household word all over Maine. When 
spoken it was a token for thought and speech in a brilliant and hu- 
morous vein. One who did not have readily at hand a new and 
original ''John Peters story" was of doubtful standing as lawyer, 
politician or publicist. And yet a new generation of bright young 
lawyers are coming to the front who know him only as they study 
his sound, clear and logical legal opinions handed down in the Maine 
law reports. 

As a man thev have no knowledge of him other than is tradi- 
tional. Thev have heard their older associates in speaking of him. 
sigh, and utter the echo of a former chorus of thousands of Maine 
people, "well there never was but one John Peters ; there can never 
be another." 



8o SPRACiUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



In the liislory of Maine's jnrisi)rudence this just judge has a 
high place that time can never obHterate. Yet his name Hngers in 
our memory as a man among men, beloved by all. He was great 
intellectually. His instinctive knowledge and understanding of hu- 
man nature was amazing. He detested hypocrisy. He hated shams. 
He loved humanity and his vision of men and things was big and 
broad. He was a trvie type of real manhood. 



THE EDES FAMILY OF DOVER-FOXCROFT. MAINE 

George V. Edes was the tirst printer in Piscataquis County. 
He was born in Boston, Feb. 14, 1797 and died in Foxcroft, Maine. 
Nov. 26. 1875. He learned his trade with his uncle, Peter Edes 
who was the first printer in Augusta and Bangor. He commenced 
with his uncle when a youth, being an apprentice when Peter wan 
located at Augusta. He came to Bangor and worked for his uncla 
while he published the Bangor Weekly Register, which was from 
November, 1815 to August, 1817. 

In 1823 he located in Norridgewock, and formed a partnership 
with Thomas J. Copeland under the firm name of Edes & Copeland. 
for the publication of the Somerset Journal, the first newspaper 
published in Somerset County. This partnership continued for 
about a year and a half when Mr. Copeland purchased Mr. Edes' 
interest in the paper and the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Edesj 
however, continued to print the paper until December, 1836. He 
located in Dover in 1838 and connnenced the publication of the 
Piscataquis Herald. 

On October 13, 1825. Mr. Edes married Susan Witherell of 
Norridgewock. Their children were Augusta, Marcia. Caroline. 
I'.dward. Charles, Wm. Henry, George and Samuel D. 

The Pi.scataquis Herald was a four-page paper 12x18 in size, 
and the office of publication was as stated in the first number, "in 
the second story of the store occupied by A. S. Patten, Es(i.'* 

This was on Merrick Square in the Village of Dover. The 
paper advocated the \\ hig cause in politics. In those days country 
editors engaged in ])artisan discussions more than to day. 

Mr. lules was a man of strong convictions and fearless in his 
advocacy of them. Political feeling ran so high that some of his 
enemies in 1838 made an assault u]>on his (.fflce by throwing stones 
through the window. 



THE EDKS FAMILY 




George \' . Edc; 



In 1842 the name of the paper was changed to Piscataquis 
Farmer with the intention of remainincj neutral in poHtics hut when 
the presidential cam|)aio;n of 1844 was in full swi'ig- it entered into 
it with its usual vigor. 

In 1847 the name was changed to I^iscatatjuis Observer and 
lias retained that name ever since. 

In the early seventies he formed a co-partnership with his 
younger son Samuel D. Fdes and thev continued the business as 



S2 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

— ,j"«^- 

G. V. Edes and Son until 1875 when Fred D. Barrows became a 
partner of the firm and the name changed to Edes and Barrows. 
This partnership was continued until 1888 when the plant was 
purchased by citizens of Dover-Foxcroft who formed a corporation 
known as the Observer Publishing Co. Later Liston P. Evans of 
Dover became sole owner of this corporation. 

Samuel D. Edes continued as its editor until this time. Mr. 
Evans is now and has ever since then been its editor. 

Mr. Samuel D. Edes is a resident of Foxcroft where he was 
born. Since leaving the newspaper work he has been actively 
engaged much of the time in real estate business. 

Edes avenue in Foxcroft Village is the result of his activities 
along this line. He has always been prominent in public affairs in 
the town, a Republican in politics, a member of the Congregational 
Church and Kineo lodoge, I. O. O. F. 



VIRGIL G. EATON 



Virgil G. Eaton, one of the ablest neivspaper men {hat Maine 
has ever produced, ivas born in Prospect, Main<e, June 25, 1850, 
and died in South Brczvcr, Maine. July /j, 79/7. 

For many years the writer enjoyed his friendship and was sad- 
dened by his departure from this life. His character was unique in 
many ways but admirable and lovable in every way. His writings 
charmed and interested all. His delightful descriptions of birds and 
bird life will long be remembered by many Maine people. 

The following tribute to his memory is from the pen of Sam E. 
Conner, himself one of the bright and well known writers in Maine 
newspaper circles today. It is a true and beautiful picture of the 
man : 

To most of the telegrapli editors who read the brief Associated Press 
dispatch out of Bangor, Friday, announcing the death of Virgil G. Eaton 
at his home in South Brewer it meant simply the passing of another old- 
timer of the newspaper game. To a few of the men now helping to make 
newspapers and to a great many others who are no longer at the work it 
caused a tightening sensation around the heart and in not a few cases, I 
am proud to say, tears welled up to the eyes, for "Virg" Eaton was one of 
those who when he made friends — which he did wherever he went — made 
tliem for life and held them by the subtle, indescribable something that 
makes true friendship ; the thing that holds regardless of the number of 
miles and years wln'ch have separated the personal association. 



VIRGIL G. EATON 83 



Virgil G. Eaton, and I do not say "Mr. Virgil G. Eaton," for if there 
was one thing he detested it was that little two-letter prefix, is the last of 
a galaxy of writers which made the old Boston Globe famous ; one of the 
last of a band of newspaper men who made the Globe a producer of men 
who could both get news and then write it. But two of these are left in 
active service in Maine today ; they are Lawrence T. Smyth of the Bangor 
Daily News and our own Arthur G. Staples of the Journal. Holman Day, 
you know, has quit the ranks of the reporter. These men do not write 
the choppy, brief statement of facts which is the present day vogue in 
newspaper writing; they tell the story, but paint a picture of it. That 
was w4iat Eaton always did. There was nothing matter-of-fact or com- 
monplace in what he wrote. He sparkled and glowed and stuck out either 
with humor or pathos. He never was dull ; he couldn't be if he tried. 

=!: * * 

For the past dozen years Virgil Eaton had not been active in newspaper 
work and the last half dozen had lived in retirement at his farm in South 
Brewer, writing occasional articles for Boston, New York papers, the 
Lewiston Journal and for magazines. His health has been constantly failing 
and his friends have, for the past year, realized that his time here was limited. 

Before going into the newspaper business he had a varied career. He 
went abroad for a bit and some of his experiences there would make interest- 
ing copy. He never wrote of them; never used them as the foundation for a 
story. That was one of his peculiarities, he never drew on his own experi- 
ences to furnish material for his pen, depending entirely upon observations 
of what others did for his plots and ideas. 

He gathered his education, or rather the foundation for it, for his great 
education was obtained in the school of experience and travel, in the public 
schools of Prospect and at the Eastern Maine seminary at Bucksport. In 
those student days he attracted attention. He was both the pride and 
despair of the seminary authorities. This information I obtained not from 
him, but from the late Henry E. Wing of Lewiston, who was a schoolmate 
of his there. Eaton's ability to assimilate lessons and to think up practical 
jokes kept the teachers busy. After leaving the seminary he taught school 
for a while and then decided to go into newspaper work — he did not call it 
journalism. Nothing aroused his ire quicker than to refer to him as a jour- 
nalist. He never cared for the title "editor." To be a good reporter was 
the one thing he aspired to and in this, tho he never admitted it, he succeeded. 
His first job was with the Globe in Boston. At that time the Globe was 
not the great newspaper it is today. Col. Taylor was building it up. For a 
time Eaton was assigned to district work. His efiorts there attracted atten- 
tion, but it was not until one day when he was sent out to do a story on a 
storm that his reputation was established. That storm story was different. 
Boston had never read anything like it. Tt started talk and Virgil Eaton 
ceased duty as a district man. 

From that time on his rise was rapid. It would be impossible to tell 
even half the big stories which he did. The stunts which he put thru were 
astonishing, especially when it is recalled that the telephone was not used 
as it is today. 



,84 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Sporring. men of the old, old days will recall the great battle between 

I Ike Weir, the -Bel fast Spider, and Heverland, but they never knew how close 

the Globe came to being beaten on that yarn. The fight was pulled off in 

; secret and a riyal paper was in on the proposition. The Globe got a tip but 

too late to. rush men to the fight. Eaton was assigned to get the story. In 

, company with a stenographer he haunted the railroad station where those 

, returning from the bout must arrive in Boston. When the fight crowd came 

- in he got one of them, a veteran authority on boxing, took him to a cafe 

, and while they ate the sporting man described the fight, round by round 

; and blow by blow. This was taken down by the stenographer, who rushed 

back to the office, transcribed it and it went into the paper that morning. 

: While the- stenographer was doing his work, Eaton wrote a picturesque lead 

describing the scenes of the battle. The story could have been but little 

better had the Globe been able to get a man to the bout. At that time Eaton 

was doing special work for the New York Herald in Boston. He wired them 

a story of the fight. The Herald's appreciation took the form of a personal 

compliment from James Gordon Bennett, the gift of a diamond stick pin 

and a substantial bonus in cash. It also brought Eaton the offer of one of 

the biggest assignments which the Herald ever gave a man. He declined to 

accept it because he believed it belonged to another man. That shows his 

sense of fair play. 

I note that the story sent out of Bangor says that Eaton toured the 
world with General Grant. He may have ; but for twelve years I was closely 
associated with him and for the last dozen years have seen him frequently. 
He never boasted or bragged of his work, the things he told came out in 
. the course of conversation and what I am writing today is the putting to- 
gether of fragments of conversation covering a period from 1892 to last 
November. In that time I never heard of his going with Grant. He did 
tour Europe with Blaine. That, I tliink, was what was meant. 

* * * 

Probably the biggest job Eaton ever did in Maine was, many years ago, 
when he came down into York County from the Globe and exposed the 
! tramp scandal. This was where certain officials were in a deal with tramps 
to arrest them, send them to jail for brief terms, dividing the fees with the 
tramps. It was a gold mine while it lasted, but Eaton, disguised as a hobo, 
got the yarn and the jig was up. 

His sense of humor was as large as he and he was a veritable giant. 
His black eyes would twinkle at anything on that line even tho a joke be 
on himself. Probably no story which he ever wrote gave him so much satis- 
faction as one telling of the devastation of Maine forests by the cutting of 
.'fir for use at Christmas. The Department of .Agriculture took it up and 
got very excited before the absurdity of the thing was really discovered. 

For many years he wrote regulaly for the Sunday New York Sun. His 
stories were fiction, hut in the form of news. There were tales of bears 
, and of fish and of all sorts of things. He it was who originated the story 
of bears in northern Maine climbing telegraph poles and pulling down the 
Iwires in their -efforts to find the honey in the poles, the buzz of the wire 
causing them to think a hive of wild bees were in the poles. An English 
magazine took this up and illustrated the article. 



VIRGIL G. EATON 85 



In 18S9, wlien the electric railroad was put in operation in Bangor Eaton 
wrote a story for the Daily News which created great excitement. He 
related the dangers and benefits of riding on the cars. As a result of it 
every suflferer from rheumatics and other diseases who could do so piled on 
the cars and rode to be cured by the wonderful electricity which escaped 
from the motors. At the same time everybody who had a \vatch was greatly 
disturbed as to the effect of this escaping current on the time pieces. 

He wrote for many of the leading magazines articles of a scientific 
nature, as well as fiction. His grasp of affairs and of general knowledge was 
wonderful. He never forgot a thing once he read it. 

His political foresight was wonderful and his judgment of men could 
not have been exceeded. His style of writing was peculiar, yet charming. 
It ought to have reminded one of Dickens, yet it was only at titnes that it 
did. It should have for Dickens was his favorite author. He made a rule 
to the very last to read Dickens thru and thru once each year. 

At the cheerful old farmhouse in South Brewer where he lived Eaton 
had a collection of gifts, from desks to binoculars which he had received 
as tokens of appreciation from newspapers and others for service rendered. 

He loved books and yet not in the way that others do. He loved them as 
books, not as a show, and had hundreds of them. In no way can I better 
illustrate what I mean than by the following incident : Some years ago I 
was looking up a matter and it became necessary to secure certain informa- 
tion, which it seemed only Eaton could provide. I drove down to his farm 
and stated my case. He listened and then said : "Why, I've got just the book 
}^ou want, come up to my library and I'll get it for you." With that he led 
the way up into the attic, where stood great numbers of flour barrels, each 
one filled with books. Walking to one of them he dug down and drew forth 
the volume he \vanted. All his books were stored that way, instead of on 
shelves, yet he know in exactly which barrel each book was. He needed no 
index to find the volume desired on any subject or at any time. 

Of Virgil G. Eaton it can be said : He was one of the most delightful of 
men, absolutely loyal to his paper and his friends, who forgot his enemies 
and remembered only those he loved. 



PAN 

In AIemoriam, Virgil G. Eaton 

Stalwart and massive, so ruggedly strong 

His proportions suggested a big native pine. 

Towering through cycles, impressively long, 

Above all his fellows, this great Pan of mine. 

Sterling and orthodox, sound to the core. 

His reeds never piped a demagogue lay. 
And nothing, I think, ever tickled him more 

Than to startle a dreamer out of his way. 



86 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Conservative? Yes, a trifle, perhaps; 

You see, old things always suited him best, 
Old friends and old inns, old roads and old maps, 

Penobscot better than anywhere West. 

The hollyhocks there by the old cottage door. 

The bluets and buttercups dow^n by the spring- 
Will miss their companion and lover of yore, 
And so will each bird he ever heard sing. 

This is the reason we liked him so well. 

He was real as the turf upon which vfe tread. 

He knew every herb, every sprig in the dell. 

The haunts by the wood-folk most frequented. 

The vain and the heedless, who care not for rhyme. 

For Nature's sweet lessons may scoff at them still. 

But some of us yet love posies and thyme — 
In "Poordock" and "over to Perkins' mill." 
Portland. Eugene Edwards. 



GEORGE C. WING 



It is not often that a man in the full vigor of his life work is 
publicly honored in quite a remarkable manner by his friends and 
fellow citizens. Yet this is just what happened to Judge George C. 
Wing of Auburn, Maine at the DeWitt hotel in Lewiston, Maine, 
April 23, 1918. The occasion was the fiftieth anniversary of his 
life as a lawyer and member of the Androscoggin bar. 

Dana S. Williams was toastmaster, and congratulatory addresses 
were delivered by George McCarthy, Judge Newall, Judge Manson. 
Hon. F. A. Morey, Joseph G. Chabot and Justice Dtmn of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Maine. Among the letters and tele- 
grams received from absent friends were those from Congressman 
Wallace H. White, Forest E. Ludden, John A. Morrill (now Judge 
of the Supreme Court), Justices George E. Bird, Warren C. Phil- 
brook, Arno W. King and Chief Justice Leslie C. Cornish. Judge 
Wing's response was a happy one from which we make the follow- 
ing excerpts : 

There are in this world things that money cannot buy, for which terms 
of commercial value are inappropriate, and which language fails to describe 
their worth. And there are debts incurred that nothing known to the human 



GEORGE C. WING 87 



mind can repay, satisfy or cancel. Your confidence, your manifestations of 
respect, your great l<indness to me have touched me tenderly, and I am re- 
warded over and over again for every effort I have made during the struggle 
of life covering a half century, and for whatever of success I have attained. 
And I here and now confess judgment in your favor for all my indebtedness 
to you which covers all my belongings, mental and material. 

]\Iy appreciation of you and each of you is most sincere and while I 
make no clamor of expression I assure you that ihe depth of my feeling of 
gratitude is beyond my power of embodying in utterance. From the bottom 
of my full heart I sincerely thank you. 

:1c ^ ^ 

Fifty 3'ears — a half century — what does it mean when we consider the 
changes wrought during that time in every department of life and effort? 
It means everything that we now regard as of value or of practical utility, 
but it seems like a "watch in the night" when it is past, and as yesterday. 

Fifty years ago yesterday I left my home in Livermore and came to 
Auburn, a lonely passenger on a stage coach thai: at that time made the trip 
every other day from Livermore Falls to Auburn on the west side of the 
river. I had taught school a part of every year after I was sixteen and had 
earned a reputation as a capable manager of surly boys, or young men, and 
a good teacher. I had read and studied law in a country office and had 
devoured the contents of all the text books it coniained, but knew very little 
of the practical application of that with which my memory was stored. I 
was familiar with Blackstone and to this day have derived pleasing and con- 
vincing proof of the dignity of the common law from the writings of the 
greatest lawyer of his time. I had read the cases in the Maine reports where 
subjects of the greatest interest to me had been determined by our own court, 
but T was a good deal of a boy, without the benefit of attendance at jury 
trials in court, and it is needless to say that when I sought out the examining 
committee and presented my certificates of character and of the time I had 
spent in study, there was a very large and very hot lump in my throat. 

The examining committee was composed of Judge Enos T. Luce, John 
W. May and Augustus M. Pulsifer. 

Judge Wing is one of the best known lawyers and publicists of 
Maine. At this time the Lewiston Journal summed up his past 
activities as follows : 

He was actively engaged in obtaining the conveyance to the city of Au- 
burn by the owners of the Edward Little institute of the land forming the 
Edward Little park, and establishing the Edward Little high school The 
conveyance was made on his birthday, April 16, 1874. 

In March, 1876, with Ara Cushman, John T. Randall. Henry \\illis, 
Moses Crafts, Francis M. Jordan and John F. Cobb, all of whom are now 
dead, the National Shoe & Leather bank was incorporated, and from the date 
of its incorporation imti'l now he has been a director. 

For several years he was director of the .\uburn Horse Railroad 
company, formed m 1881. 

In 1884 he formed the Lewiston & .\nburn Electric Light company, and 
was its first president. 



88 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Actively engaged in the location and erection of the Soldiers' monument. 
The inscription on the monument is of his own composition. 

Was largely instrumental in obtaining a government post office in Auburn, 
and it was thru his personal effort that the gift of the library was obtained 
from Andrew Carnegie. 

Has been a member of the Auburn school board for several years and 
several times has been elected city solicitor. 

Was for a great many years a trustee and treasurer of the Mount Auburn 
Cemetery corporation. 

A member of all the Masonic bodies, the Mystic Shrine, the Knights of 
Pythias, a member of the Maine Historical society and of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. He was a member of the Senate of Maine in 1903. 

President of the Androscoggin Bar association since February, 1902, and 
from 1913 to 1975 was president of the Maine State Bar association. Is now 
a member of the American Bar association. 

A trustee of Colby college since igoi, and in 1909 the college conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

Director of the Portland & Rumford Falls railway from the date 
of its organization until it was leased to the Maine Central railroad. 

The first president of the Auburn board of trade as now constituted. 

Organized in 1886, the Auburn Home for Aged Women, and since that 
date has been an officer of the corporation, and for many recent years its 
president. The present spacious Home was built imder his administration. 



JOSIAH BACON MAYO 

Born in Freeport, Maine, Feb. 19, 1826 — Died in Foxeroft, 
Maine, Sept. ly, 191S. 

Among the pioneers in the woolen mannfactiiring industry in 
eastern Maine, was John Gould Mayo. He was of English descent 
and his ancestors were among the first settlers of Ackworth, in 
SulHvan County, New Hampshire. He moved to the State of 
Maine about 1820 and resided in Freeport, Denny sville and other 
places in this state until about 1846 when he located in Foxeroft 
and established a small woolen mill, the firm being Mayo, Bush and 
Hale. 

In 1853 having purchased his partners' interests he with his 
son Josiah reorganized under the firm name of Mayo & Son. It 
developed into a large business and retained this name as a partner- 
ship and later as a corporation until it was recently purchased by 
the American Woolen Company. 



JOSIAH BACON MAYO 



89 




J'>3iah Bacon Mayo 

Josiah Bacon Mayo attended the village schools of Kennebunk 
and the private school of Dr. Patten in Edmunds, and graduated 
from the Foxcroft Aca:!emy. John G. Mayo died December 9, 1879 
after which the business was conducted by Josiah B. and his brother 
John G. Mayo, Jr. In 1895 he retired from the business and was 
succeeded by his son. Col. Edward J. Mayo. He and Maj. Walter 
J. Mayo carried it on until the sa'e to the American Woolen Co. 
He married, Sept. 5. 1848. Eliza Ann Sprague of Pembroke, Maine, 
whose death occurred at Foxcroft Jan. 10, 1909. Their, children 
have been Eliza M.. now Mrs. Eliza M. Chase, of Portland and 
Edward J., now living, and George Frederick and Mary Ellen, both 
deceased. 

Mrs. Mayo was a descendant of Col. John Allan of revolution- 
ary fame and whom Gen. Washington appointed Superintendent of 
the Maine Indians during the Revolution. 



C) See Journal Vol. 2, pp. 233-257. 



90 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Mr. Mayo held interests in other woolen mills in Maine and 
Massachusetts and other states and was well and favorably known 
among his associates throughout New England for his integrity and 
upright dealings. 

He was director in the old Bangor and Piscataquis R. R. now a 
part of the Bangor and Aroostook system, and in 1889 was one of 
the principal promoters of the Dexter and Piscataquis R. R. and 
its president until the time of his death. He was deeply interested 
in the Foxcroft Academy, and from the first a liberal supporter of 
the Good Will Home, for many years one of its trustees. He waa 
a member of the Foxcroft Congregational Church; Mosaic Lodge 
F. & A. M. ; Maine Piscataquis R. A. C. ; Kineo Lodge I. O. O. F. 
and El Dorado encampment, and of the Piscataquis club. While 
declining to hold any political offices he was always an active mem- 
ber of the republican party and a delegate from Maine to its national 
Convention in Cincinnati in 1876. 

Broad and liberal in his views of men and things, ever unassum- 
ing, kind and polite to all, he was in every sense a real gentleman and 
his friends were many and from every walk in life. 

At the funeral services his pastor the Reverend John H. Wilkins 
was the officiating clergyman and his life long friend Reverend 
George W. Hinckley of Good Will Home spoke in eulogy of his 
life career which was a beautiful and eloquent tribute to his memory. 

He was a good citizen, a good man, a true friend. His methods 
in life helped to promote happiness and not despair among his 
fellow men. 



GEORGE E. MAYO 



l"he sudden death by pneumonia of George E. ^layo at Foxcroft, 
September 2-], igi8, son of Colonel Mayo and grandson of Josiab 
B. Mayo was a sad occurrence. He was born in Foxcroft and was 
33 years of age. His home had been in that town until about two 
years ago when he removed to Pittsfield. Maine and was General 
Manager of woolen mills there. He was a director in the Lock- 
svood Co. of Waterville, Maine and a capable and energetic business 
man. He was a member of Mosaic Lodge F. & A. M.. of Piscata- 
quis R. A. C. and a member of the Piscataquis Club. 



ALBERT RUSSELL SAVAGE 9^' 



JOHN H. DANFORTH 

The coniniunity of Dover-Foxcroft on Sept. 30, 1918 sustained 
another severe loss in the death of John H. Danforth, son of Dana 
H. and Margaret (Clark) Danforth. He was born in La Grange, 
Maine, July 26, 1892 and had for several years resided in Foxcroft. 
Business and social circles and two homes were saddened by the 
untimely death of this young man. He was a member of Mosaic 
Lodge, F. & A. M., of Foxcroft Chapter R. A. M., and the Piscata- 
quis Club. 



ALBERT RUSSELL SAVAGE 

It is not fulsome praise to say that the late Albert Russell Savage, 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, was one of 
the greatest of Maine's able and honored men who have held that 
high position and was everywhere recognized as one of the most 
notable jurists of New England. 

We herewith append the following response of the Court de- 
livered by Chief Justice Cornish of the Supreme Judicial Court of 
Maine at the special session of the Law Court held in honor of his 

memory : 

Chief Justice Savage, in whose loved memory we are met today, stepped 
so suddenly from the chamber we call life into the chamber we call death, 
which we believe is but another room in the house of the good Father, that 
he almost seems not to have left us, and ^ it is with difficuUy that we can 
realize his departure He had returned to his home in Auburn on Monday, 
Tune nth, horn the law court in Bangor, where he had seemed as well as at 
any time during the past three years, and had presided over the session of 
that court with his accustomed grace and dignity. On Tuesday and Wednes- 
day he was busy with his judicial work, hearing causes in chambers, and 
preparing an extended note in a case pending the law court where there had 
been a divergence of views. On the day before he passed away he wrote out 
in his own clear and bea\itiful hand a' decision in a matter that he had 
recently heard, dated it the following day, Thursday, June 14, iQi?, and left 
it on his desk awaiting his return next mornhig. But next morning, instead 
of returnmg to the courthouse and to his chambers, which by long association 
had become so dear to him, without warning, without pain his spirit took 
its flight from the burdening body, and after many years of honorable and 
honored labor he was at rest. 

Chief Justice Savage was truly a product of northern New England 
born in Vermont, educated in New Hampshire, his life work developed and 



92 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



completed in .Maine, lie was the very enibodinient of the characteristics of 
our northern country. Towering and majestic like its mountains, placid 
and equable like its lakes, with a depth of reserved power like its noble 
rivers, his nature could and did drink in the joys and the pleasures of a 
verdured June, or submit in silent strength and resignation to the sorrows 
and disappointmemts of a bleak and drear November. His birth place was 
Ryegate, Vermont. 

Judge Savage was born on December 8, 1847. His father was a farmer, 
and there, in that remote rural community the boy grew up amid all those 
typic surroundings, which may then have seemed to him like privations, but 
which in reality were rich blessings. Industry, prudence, thrift, rational 
ambition, and patience, these constituted the environment. He was fond of 
recounting his early days upon the farm and looked back upon them with 
appreciation of their formative value. His college was Dartmouth, an insti- 
tution which has given three chief justices to Maine. 

During his college course and after graduation he taught in northern 
New Hampshire and northern Vermont ; and as we jouneyed together from 
Montreal to Portland a few years ago, he pointed out to me in a reminiscent 
mood, one of the districts in wliich he had taught while in college. He then 
studied law and was admitted to the bar of Androscoggin county at the 
April term, 1875, and for more than forty-two years he upheld the best 
traditions of that bar and of the profession. As a practising attorney from 
1875 to 1S97, a period of twenty-two years, his rise from rather small be- 
ginnings was constant, until he was recognized as one of the leaders of the 
bar in the state. Those present here today who were his associates or his 
adversaries in many a hard-fought battle know full well the strength of his 
honorable warfare. Amid his many professional cares, however, he found 
time to serve in varied positions of public trust, in all of which he proved 
his capacity for administrative and judicial labor, while at the same time 
his own experience was broadening and liis intellectual equipment was devel- 
oping. 

During this period, too, he prepared, and, on January i, 1897, he pub- 
lished, the first volume of his Index Digest of the Maine Reports, a task 
that consumed the hours which others were devoting to rest or recreation, 
and thereby he made the profession his acknowledged debtor. It was a 
work which proved the analytical qualities of his mind, and greatly enhanced 

liis legal reputation 

The dominant element in Judge Savage's character was untiring indus- 
try. Voltaire's motto, "Always at work," was his. He had the capacity 
for unremitting mental labor, and he exercised that capacity to the full. 
"Nulla dies sine linea." Physically he was inclined to be indolent, mentally he 
was ever active, and herein lay the source of his strength. Each year brought 
growth in legal knowledge and intellectual power, as the giant oak acquires 
each twelve months its circle of added fibre. Tn his chambers, he was always 
busy, and when the day's work was finished and his books and liis jicn laid 
aside, he would devote hours to the solution of an intricate picture puzzle, 
or commit to memory a page of his favorite. Shakespeare. During the last 
years of his life he mastered several of the plays of the great dramatist, and 



ALBERT RUSSELL SAVAGE 93 



could recite then, verbatin.. a task of magnitude. On his desk, right at hand, 
he always kept the well-thumbed volume. 

In 1909 l.e brought out his supplemental index d.gest, hndn.g tunc 
therefor amid his exacting judicial labors. 

To this talent for work, which i. but another name tor genms. ve must 
add I: open mind and an innate love of justice. If he had P/e^Khce^,, he 
concealed them. I doubt if he possessed any. H:s smgle thought was o d s 
cove the way the light of legal truth leadeth. And so, wUh th.s legal n ud 
Tonltantly in training, his strength waxed with the years, and he advanced 
bv steady strides into the ranks of Maine's great judges. 
' A nis prius he was welcome in every county. He was popular ,n t le 
only true and desirable sense, in that popularity with lym was a result and 
n a motive He presided over the trial of a cause before a jury w.th ase 
a d .■ ac and dignity. He spoke infrequently. His words had therefore 
he 'reater weigh . With his full mind he was able to rule promptly and 
fqL^ely thus e;pediting the cause, while always giving the aggr.ev.d ^ary 
his rio-ht of exception. He never feared exceptions. I have often heard 
him s^y that he w'as glad when exceptions were ^^^en to a dou fu r^n 
because if it was wrong he wished it to be made right. His charges to the 
u r we imple, clear, informing, not essays on abstract law but plain 
Iks To la n me, on the issues before them. He was master of the situa- 
on He looked the part and he acted the part. He J-. ^^ from al 
u-i-f n- nf temner He never seemed to be irritated himself, and he 

:,:;■;,.: z : iL^r i- -y ^^ -« ^-y ^i^-^ -^" ■- '-- 

He wa patient kindly, cottrteotts; yet there was an underlynig firnt, e.> 
" icrti^ot: h tt obt/u'si-e, was silently tnanifest. U was ^J- -*=; '^JJ 
.cen In l,is personal relations the same was true. There was a fee n, o 
friendship. J somehow, except to a ehosen few, ,t stopped ,ns, short of 

'""Itt with nineteen d.fleren. ind.es in the law court. "e^i™""|; -» 
■ ■ :,h n.ief lustice Peters. His l^rst published opinion was Rhoades 

Tc^u" at* c y ole month after his appointment, and appearing 

n T^l 453. ,,8 Atl.. 367. His last was State v. Jeiniess ai^unced . , 
a week before his death. This will appear in 1 16 Me.. 100, Atl.. 933^ "« J 
;e"en youmes therefore contain the result of his appellate «»*. They 
arreJte 434 full opinions, in addition to 63 per curiam rescripts a total 
of near!: five luindred decisions, representing his contribution to the turis- 

"""'i;;dle"sar.e*ad a singularly happy style. He developed his opinions 
so 10' iUv a io lucidly L they marched straight on ,0 the cone us.on 
.nd thev were easy reading even for a layman. His pen ran smoothly. He 

tg to Zlayo'; learniirg, but the learning was ^^"-^^'" ^ ^:Z 
d°y understanding. He often made his points u, sharp -*«- °"; f^; '. 
the nail with every blow and the wood was left unsearred. This "•''^ '^P' 
'e^,r;' le of his Ler opinions, in some <;^^which the use o^, con.mc.,on, is 
almost dispensed with, and no verb is far separated irom 
He did not seek the startling expression, and y^^-^--^^--^,^ ^^^ "mc . 
the epigrammatic. In one of his last opinions. Bixler v. Y^^'^find these 

33 100 Atl.. 467. a case involving fraud in the sale of goods, we find these 



94 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



words, which f.re characteristic not only of his literary style, but of the 
man himself; "The law dislikes negligence. It seeks properly to make the 
enforcement of men's rights depend in very considerable degree upon whether 
they have been negligent in conserving and protecting their rights. But the 
law abhors fraud. And when it comes to an issue whether fraud shall pre- 
vail or negligence, it would seem that a court of justice is quite as much 
bound to stamp out fraud, as it is to foster reasonable care." 

I cannot close without a brief reference to the personal appearance of 
Judge Savage, so familiar to us, but unknown to those who may read these 
words in after years. Of commanding height, with a fully developed and 
well-rounded figure, and an upright carriage, he was indeed a king among 
men. Whenever and wherever he represented the court we were proud of 
him. His figure was imposing and his countenance strong and fine. He was 
.moderate in movement, moderate, too, in speech. His voice was deep and 
■rich as a, cathedral bell with a peculiarly sympathetic quality that was most 
charming. It attracted and held attention. Usually reserved and dignified, 
yet when that kindly smile illumined his face you were made an instant 
friend. He loved companionship and the society of congenial associates. 
He was a welcome visitor at the fireside, and after an evening's talk before 
the open fire one was impressed with the sweetness as well as the strength 
of his character. He was singularly modest. Publicity he disliked and 
avoided. He met with personal bereavements in the loss of family far beyond 
the lot of any man within my acquaintance, but no one ever heard him 
utter a word of complaint. With him tribulation indeed worked patience. 
It softened him and made him tender. 



DAVID DINSMORE STEWART 

, David Dinsmore Stewaii: who died at his home in St. Albans. 
Maine, Deceniber 3, 191 7, was for a quarter of a century regarded 
as the nestor of the Maine bar and was in many ways a remarkable 
man. He retained his mental vigor until the hour of his death, being 
then in the ninety-fifth year of his age, having been born in Corinna, 
Maine, Oct. 22, 1823. 

He attended the common schools of his native town and later 
was a student in Colby and Bowdoin colleges. He commenced the 
practice of law in that village in 1847 ^^""^ continued it there for 
.seventy years. 

St. Albans is one of Maine's thrifty farming towns but in those 
days and for many years later it was a stage coach and tote team 
centre, hence a desirable location at that time for a young lawyer 
beginning his career. He was a great lawyer in every sense of that 
term. 



JOHN B. MADIGAN 95 



He acquired such an extensive practice in that httle country vil- 
lage that he amassed a fortune large for any lawyer in either city 
or country town practice, and what was an amazing one for a coun- 
try lawyer. 

With him it never was a case of Mohammed going to the moun- 
tain, the mountain always went to him. It had to. His ability and 
integrity as an attorney were fully understood all over Maine and 
his clientage extended into all parts of the state. 

And yet in the early days of his busy life he found time to at- 
tend to republican politics, was a member of the Maine legislature, 
and in 1864 president of the Senate. He had however little taste 
for the life of a politician. The law was his mistress and he was 
faithful to her demands for a period that covers life's allotted span. 



JOHN B. MADIGAN 

Judge Madiyan ivas born in Hoiilton. Maine. January 4. 
1863 and died there Jan. 19, ipi^- 

As a boy he attended the public school of Houlton and graduated 
from Ricker Classical Institute. He also attended St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, a preparatory school in New Brunswick. He then attended 
Georgetown University and upon graduating entered Boston 
University, completing the course' there in 1886. He first com- 
menced practise with his brother Albert Madigan forming a part- 
nership with him as Madigan and Madigan. Upon the death of 
his brother he formed a partnership with Hon. Leonard Pierce, and 
was a member of the legislature in 1889. He was one of the most 
forceful and eloquent public speakers in this state. 

He served for a time on the International Commission on the St. 
John River. He was appointed a member of the Supreme Judi- 
cial Court of Maine by Gov. Curtis, March 15, 1916. 

He was a highly esteemed citizen not only in his own town but 
in all parts of Maine as well. 

When his death occurred Honorable Leslie C. Cornish of Au- 
gusta. Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, paid 
him the following tribute : 

Judse Madigan was one oi the strongest men of INIaine. With sound 
legal lea^rning, broad experience in business affairs, accurate judgment, with 
a well poised, judicial mind and love of justice, he came to the bench admira- 



96 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



l;ly equipped for tlic work. Tn his less than two years of service lie proved 
liis faculties for the position in every way and acquired a firm place in 
respect and admiration of the legal profession of this state, a respect and 
admiratidu which the years would have increased. 

His lovahle personality won deep affection with the associates of the 
bench and we al! are stunned by the blow. 

A beautiftil tribivte was paid him in the sermon of Rt. Rev. Louis 
S. Walsh. D. D.. Bishop of Portland, at the funeral mass held at St. 
Mary's chtnxh, Ploulton, Jan. 24, 1918. 



SETH M. CARTER 



Born ill ]]'atcrvUlc. Maine, July .^5, iS^^j. and died in Auburn, 
Maine, Jan. 5, 191S. 

He was the son of A. Warren and .Vda May Carter. He was 
graduated from Bowdoin in 1875 and received the degree of A. M. 
from Bowdoin in 1878. 

Immediately following his graduation he commenced the sttidy 
of law, and was admitted to the Androscoggin bar in 1877. ^^ 
became a member of the firm of Frye, Cotton and White, of which 
the senior member was U. S. Senator William P. Frye. Hon. 
John B. Cotton, former assistant attorney general of the United 
States and Wallace H. White were the other members with Mr. 
Carter. Upon Mr. Cotton's removal to Washington, Senator Frye 
withdrew from the firm which has since been continued as White 
and Carter. 

Mr. Carter was city solicitor of Atibttrn and has been a member 
of the Governor's Council of Maine. He was chairman of the Re- 
publican State committee for a number of years and was a trustee 
of the Androscoggin County Savings bank and a director of the 
Somerset railroad. Mr. Carter made a specialty of corporation law. 
For a great many sessions of the legislature he represented the 
Maine Central Railroad Co. at Augusta. He was appointed receiver 
of the Rangeley Lakes and Sandy River railroad and was promi- 
nent in its reorganization. Since 1912, Mr. Carter has been general 
counsel of the Maine Central Railroad. He was a member of the 
county, state and national bar associations and was one of the 
tncorporators of the Maine Bar association. 

y\e was a man of high character and tmqtiestioned integrity. 



WAiNWRi(;irr gushing 97 



WAIN WRIGHT GUSHING 

By Edgar Grosby Smith 

Hon. W^ainwright Gushing of Foxcroft, one of the notable men 
of Maine passed to the higher life Jime 19 at 11.50 o'clock P. M. 
In his death the community and state suffers a great loss. Such 
men as Mr. Gushing can ill be spared and his passing is deeply 
deplored. 

Wainwright Gushing was the eldest child of Joseph W. and Anna 
(Morrill) Gushing, and was born in Sebec, August 12, 1841. He 
was educated in the town schools and Foxcroft Academy and as a 
young man worked in his father's cloth mill at Sebec. In 1861 he 
enlisted in the Sixth Maine Regiment, G"ompany A, and later re- 
enlisted in the First Maine Veterans, a company made up of the 
fifth, sixth and seventh Maine regiments. He served under Burn- 
side and Hooker at Williamsburgh, in front of Richmond, at the 
second battle of Bull Run, at Antietam and Fredericksburg and 
campaigned with Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. He enlisted 
as a private, was twice wounded and was discharged as a lieutenant, 
July 5, 1865. At the conclusion of the war Mr. Gushing returned 
to Sebec and again took up work in the woolen mill as a dyer. In 
1869 he came to Dover where he was employed by the Brown 
Woolen company, having charge of the dye-house for 13 years. 

It was while engaged in this work that he conceived the idea of 
developing a business entirely new to the world by perfecting house- 
hold dyes to take the place of the old family dye-pot. In this he 
was successful after experimenting for many years. In 1880 he 
commenced in a small way to put his product on the market under 
the name of G'ushing's Perfection Dyes. For a few years thev were 
known and used only locally, but every spare dollar was placed in 
judicious advertising and in about ten years after his modest be- 
ginning he was the possessor of a large and still growing business 
to which he devoted his entire time. 

Mr. Gushing was a valued and public spirited citizen and every 
w orthy undertaking received his cordial support. He was a Repub- 
lican in politics and for six years. 1884- 1890. was register of probate 
for Piscataquis county; in 1895-6 he was a member of Governor 
Henry B. Cleaves' council. He was a 32d degree Mason and' had 
served as worshipful master of Mosaic lodge and high priest of 
Piscataquis Royal Arch chapter. 



9« SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



He was always prominent and active in everything that related 
to the Grand Army of the Repubhc and in 1893 was department 
commander of the Department of Maine. /\t the time of his death 
he was state commander of the Loyal Legion. He had also held 
the office of commander of C. S. Douty post, No. 27,. G. A. R. 
and colonel of Custer command, U. V. U. He was a member of 
the Sons of the American Revolution and in 1916 was president of 
the Maine society. 

Like all veterans of the Civil War, he was a great admirer of 
Abraham Lincoln, and one incident in his life was highly treasured 
and which he often related. It had to do with one of President 
Lincoln's visits to the wounded soldiers, and occurred while Mr. 
Cushing was an inmate of a Washington hospital recovering from 
wounds received on the battlefield. The President came a'.ong 
beside his cot, inquired as to his condition and chatted with the 
wounded soldier for some minutes and left him with words of en- 
couragement and hope. 

Mr. Cushing took his recreation in travelling. This he thor- 
oughly enjoyed, and as his material wealth increased he satisfied thi » 
inclination. He had visited nearly every |)art of the L^nited State;* 
and taken trips abroad. 

On October 20, 1866. Mr. Cushing was united in marriage with 
Flora A. Mclntyre of Sebec. He is survived by a son Caleb H. 
Cushing of Dover, and a daughter, Mrs. Walter J. Mayo of Fox- 
croft ; two sisters \lrs. Celia A. Prentiss and Mrs. Francis A. Ellis, 
both of Brighton, Mass., and a brother, William E. Cushing of 
Allston, Mass. 

For the past fifteen years Mr. C^ishing had been affiliated with 
the Christian Science church. 

Funeral services were held at his late residence on Lincoln street. 
C. S. Doutv post, G. A. R. conducted their service which was fol- 
lowed by the Christian Science service, conducted by Gorham H. 
W^ood, Esq., of Bangor. 



EUGENE IIALi:— FRANK LAMBERT DINGLEY, LITT. D. 

Within the short period of 36 days of each other two of Maine's 
great men departed this life. I^'rank Lambert Dingley of Auburn 
died at his 'home in that city September 21, 1918, and Eugene Hale 
.of Ellsworth died in Washington, D. C, Oct, 27, 1918. 



EUGENE HALE— FRANK L. DINGLEY 99 

Mr. Dingley was born in Unity, Maine, Feb. 7, 1840, and Mr. 
Hale was born in Turner. Maine. June 9, 1836. Frank Dingley was 
a graduate of Bowdoin, was strictly a newspaper man and among 
the greatest of American editors and publicists of nation-wide fame. 

Eugene Hale was not a college graduate but from the public 
schools and Hebron Academy passed to the study of the law and 
became a lawyer of ability in his day and when a young man entered 
the political field and for 30 years as United States Senator from his 
state held a high place among the American statesmen of his time. 

We couple their names together for they belonged for a life 
time to the same political organization ; each loved and strove for 
what he conceived to be for the best interests of his state and his 
countrv and efxh had high ideals and were fearless in following and 
defending them. And yet they were often at variance in their dis- 
cussion of public questions of the day. 

Certainly no man in Maine and but few in the country was ever 
a nobler type of the radical than Mr. Dingley. and Eugene Hale's 
name will ever be a shining example among conservatives. 

As time passes and adjusts the problems which vexed them it 
may disclose that their differences were not as fundamental as they 
themselves believed, when in the heat of battle. Probably it will be 
seen that they arose from each standing at widely separated view 
points. 

The noble character and impregnable integrity of each as pub- 
licists was never assailed nor even suspected by their bitterest foes. 

In the history of the advancement of civilization we see stalwart 
leaders like these two Maine men upon its every page and they are 
immortals. It is such strong, positive characters as these, who, 
standing fearlessly in the ranks of both the conservatives and the 
radicals for many centuries in the past have been the impelling force 
in the progress of the Anglo Saxon race. 

There never has been and never can be but one test for true man- 
hood ; to dare to follow ones own honest convictions and dare to 
change when one is convinced that he is wrong. 

Dinglev and Hale both loved the state of Maine, and wrought 
for her welfare and the people of Maine loved them and will ever 
cherish and revere their memory. 

Frank Lambert Dingley and Eugene Hale were noble sons of 
Maine. 



loo SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



On October 30. 1918, the following message of condolence wa? 
sent to U. S. Senator Frederick Hale, son of the deceased : 

111 this, your hour of sorrow, as you mourn the death of your revered 
father, the late Senator Eugene Hale, who was so widely known and hon- 
ored, Governor MiMikcn and the members of the Executive Council desire 
to express to you and your niotlier not only their sincere sympathy, but the 
sympathy of tihe entire State as well. 



JOHN APPLETON, LL. D. 

Born in Ipszvich, N. H.. July 12, 1804 — Died in Bangor, 
Maine, Feb. 7, iSgi. 

Another of Maine's eminent and really great jurists was John 
Appleton. He was admitted to the bar in 1826 and first commenced 
the practice of law in the village of Sebec in Piscataquis County, 
Maine. He was appointed to a seat on the bench in 1852, chief 
justice in 1862, and retired in 1883. 

He was a profound student of the world's best literature and 
during all of his busy life was as familiar with the classics, and with 
English, European and American works on these subjects as they 
were published as with those of his own profession. 

He was one, if not the very earliest, of law writers to agitate 
against the then existing evil in English jurisprudence in not allow- 
ing parties in criminal prosecutions to testify in their own behalf 
By incessant and persistent efiforts as a writer he succeeded in this 
and lived to see his views adopted throughout his own country and 
other nations of the world. 

Another prominent Maine lawyer who also early espoused this 
cause and who was a co-laborer with Judge Appleton for the 
reform was the late Honorable Albert W. Paine of Bangor. 

From Bibliography of Maine, by Joseph Williamson (Vol. i. 
p 45) we append the following relative to his authorship as a writer 
upon legal subjects : Appleton, John, LL. D. 

Usury Laws. Am. Jur. 6:282. (1831). 

— -Reiports of cases determined in the Supi\'iiic Judicial Court of the 
State of Maine. Ry John Appleton. 

Maine Reports. Volume XIX HallDwell: Gla/ier, Masters and Smith. 

1842. 8 vo. pp. 409, d). 

, Maine Reports. Volume XX. Halln\v(.ll : Glazier, Masters and Smith. 

1843. 8 vo. pp. viii, (5), 10-51 1, (i). 

From pp. I to 256, by John Aipplctnn, Voluiiu' VI. Frnm pp. 257 to 511, 
by John Shepley, Volume VI T. 



JOHN APPLETON 



lOI 



The same. Second edition. Portland: Dresser, McLellan and Co. 1878. 

-Law of Evidence. Mass. Quar. Rev. 2:39. (i«48). 

Review of Greenleafs Law of Evidence. 

-Judicial Oaths. Mass. Quar. Rev. 3:161^ (1850. 

Review of "Bentham on Oaths," and "The Oath, by D. X. Junkm. 

-The Rules of Evidence Stated and Discussed^ By John APP^^^ - J- 
tice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Mame. Phdadelphia . 1 . and V.. 
Johnson & Co., law booksellers and publishers, 535 Chestnut Street, i860. 

'^■°-|;;i:w-by George S Hdlard, No. Am. Rev. 9.:5:5. U860. The most 
remarkable thing about Chief Justice Appleton is h.s -ry a option of t^ 
views of Jeremy Bentham and that school ,n regard to legal reform. He 
Xed into this discussion with the greatest enthusiasm half a century ago. 




The D L. Annis building in Sebec Village, Maine in which 
was the firs't law office of Chief Justice Appleton, indicated by X. 



md has never ceased with tongue and pen to advocate these doctrines. When 
he be-an this labor, it required no small courage to meet the scoin contempt 
nnd even abuse of the legal profession. Such radical doctrines the lawyers 
all thought were worthy of a mad-house, and they were denounced with vigor 
and not seldom with venom. Now all is changed. In every state of the 
Union as well as in England, ancient and absurd rules of evidence have 
heen altered, and common sense has full sway in the most important branch 
of jurisprudence. To no man living is the crelit due more than to John 
^nnletnn. Every Other Sat., Jan. 1884. 

' -Testimony of parties in criminal prosecution. Letters in American 
Law Register, N. S.. 4:577, (1865). SM^Q, (1886). 

Reviewed and criticised. Am. Law. Reg. 6:385. (1867). 



102 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The late General Charles Hamlin of Bangor in writing of Judge 
Appleton in the Green Bag (Vol. 7, p 513, 1895) says: 

The two fundamental reforms which he assisted in bringing about are 
those rdating to the abolition of the District Court in Maine and the removal 
of the disability of parties as witnesses in their own behalf. 

In 1833 he began writing upon tliis subject to the "Jurist" and his 
articles were collected and published in i860 in Appleton on Evidence. In 
it will be found the argiunents and discussions which finally led to the 
change by which parties to causes both civil and criminal are admitted to 
testify in their own behalf. This rule now prevails, with some modifications, 
in all the courts of the country, both State and National ; and the credit of 
the same is due to Chief Justice 'Appleton, more than any other one man. 



VICTOR WELLS MACFARLANE. 

Sometime back in the late seventies the writer first met Major 
Macfarlane, at one of the hotels around Moosehead Lake, and the 
fact that he had previously written something for the Eorest and 
Stream pertaining to the charms and attractions of the Moosehead, 
Monson and Elliottsville regions as a summer resort for tired city 
people led to our acquaintance. He was then a resident of either 
New York or Chicago and was spending his suiumer in Maine aa 
a ''summer visitor." His love for Maine never grew less but 
increased as the years passed. He finally becaiue a permanent 
resident of Greenville and was the first to establish the manufacture 
of veneer in eastern Maine. He was a man of great force and 
energy and abundant enthusiasm about whatever engaged his atten-. 
tion. Belonging to the same political organization and viewing many 
public questions from similar angles our relations were intimate and 
remained so until his death. 

We shall always cherish most agreeable memories of him. 

The following was prepared for the Maine Commandery of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and read 
at the meeting held in Portland. Dec. 5th, 1917 : 

Companion Victor Wells Macfarlane died in Reading, Mass., October 
15, 1917. Living remote from headquarters of the Commandery he was 
able only occasionally to have a share in our meetings ; but his presence, when 
it was possible for him to be with us, was always welcome, and his fellow- 
ship in the order was loyally cherished by him to the la.st. 

He was bom in Yonkers, Westchester county, N. Y., August 27, 1844. 
Both of his parents, Duncan and Mary Ann Macfarlane, were natives of 



VICTOR WELLS MACFARLANE 103 



Paisley, Scotland. From them he inherited those sturdy thrifty qualities 
v\hich his father anl mother brought with them to this country when they 
sought for themselves a home on this side of the sea, settling at Yonkers. 
Here the son spent his early years. From the public schools in Yonkers he 
at length passed to the PeekskiU Military Academy at Peekskill, N. Y. Here 
the opening of the Civil war found him receiving thorough military training, a 
fitting preparation for such patriotic service as at that time comparatively 
lew among us had. He was then, however, seventeen years of age. But a 
year later, on graduating from the academy, be at once sought active service, 
enlisting as a private in the well-known Seventh Regiment of the National 
Guard of New York. This was a three months' regiment; but at the end 
of this period the value of his service had been so fully recognized, that on 
l>cing" mustered out he was empowered to raise a company of volunteers, 
and was offered a commission as first lieutenant, mustering officer and 
adjutant of th^ 172nd Regiment of the New York Infantry. He accepted 
the commission, and September 6, 1862, he was transferred to the 165th 
Regiment, New York Volunteers. His efficiency as a drill-master was now 
so well known that his services, outside of his regiment, were often sought 
and he was frequently on detached service. January 13, 1863, he was hon- 
orably mustered out ; but in July, 1863, on the call of President Lincoln for 
additional troops, he joined the 17th Regiment New York National Guard, 
and July 8th was made sergeant major of the regiment and major July 25, 
1863. At the expiration of the service of this regiment he was mustered ouc 
August 13, 1863. His eligibility to membership in this order was derived from 
his services in the 165th New York Volunteers, and he was elected a member 
through this commandery Sqjt. 3rd, 1902, his insignia number being 13,642. 

Following his war service, Companion Alacfarlane engaged in business 
in New York City, giving his attention to his various interests there until 
1883. About that time he removed ito Chicago, 111., where he enlarged his 
grain business of earlier years and was prominent in other enterprises. 
\\ liile in Chicago, he was connected with the Board of Trade. In 1890 on 
account of ill health he came to Maine and established a veneer manufactur- 
ing plant on the shores of Moosehead lake, employing a large number of 
workmen in this plant and in obtaining hardwood lumber in the neighbor- 
ing woods. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1Q05 but through his activities 
was rebuilt on a much larger scale. In 1910. Companion Macfarlane re- 
turned to New York and devoted himself to the sale of the output of sev- 
eral veneer and box factories. He was thus employed when laid aside by 
his late illness. 

In these various enterprises Companion Macfarlane was known as a 
stirring, energetic, progressive business man. He also took an active interest 
in the welfare of the communities in wliich he made his home. He was 
prominent also in matters pertaining to state and national afifairs. In politics 
he was a Republican and in 1899 was elected member of the legislature of 
Maine as the representative from the Greenville class. In 1901 he was 
elected state senator from Piscataquis county. He was a man of genial and 
lovable personality and had a large acquaintance with prominent men in 
many circles in wide sections of our country. He was a member of tlie 
Anny and Navy club in New York and of the Masonic order. 



104 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Funeral services were held on October 17th at his late residence in 
Reading, Mass., and also on October i8th at St. Johns cemetery, Yonkers, 
N. Y., where the burial took place. 

Companion Macfarlane was married May 24lh, 1865, to Zanina Xelson, 
daughter uf Air. and Mrs. Thomas Nelson, of Peekskill, N. Y. To them one 
child was burn, Cornelia Seymour Macfarlane now Mrs. Lyman Blair of 
Greenville, Alaine. Mrs. Macfarlane died in April, 1903. On October 30th, 
1913, Companion Macfarlane married in New York City, Blanche Elizabeth 
Bailey, daughter of Mr. and Airs. Charles H. Bailey of Medford, Alaine, 
who survives him. To her aiid the surviving daughter this commandery 
desires to make affectionate mention of remembrance and sympathy. 



JOHN E. BUNKER 



Deep regret was felt all over Maine when on Aug. 16, 1918 the 
sad news was flashed over the wires that John E. Bunker had died 
at the Eastern Maine General Hospital. 

He was born in Trenton, Hancock County, Maine, April 24, 1866 
and received his early education at the East Maine Conference Semi- 
nary at Bucksport and the Coburn Classical Institute, Watervihe. 
He read law with Wiswell, King, and Peters at Ellsworth and 
entered Boston University Oct., 1890. 

He was for a time chief librarian of the law school library in 
that University. He was admitted to the bar Oct., 1892, and opened 
an office and practiced for some years in Bar Harbor. He was for 
nine years chairman of the Board of Selectmen of that town and for 
a time was Clerk of Courts for Hancock County. He was formerly 
a Republican in politics but later became a member of the Demo- 
cratic party and was Secretary of State during the administration 
of Governor Curtis. 

In 1916 he was the Democratic candidate for Congress in the 3d 
district. 

When the United States entered war with Germany, Governor 
Milliken a])pointed him Executive Secretary of the Maine Commit- 
tee of Public Safety and later appointed him chairman of the Public 
Utilities commission. He was active in fraternal orders taking an 
especial interest in Odd Fellowship. He was a Past Grand Master of 
the Grand Lodge (I. O. O. F.) of Maine and I'ast Grand Repre- 
sentative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge. He had a wide ac(|uaint- 
ance and manv friends all over Maine. 



SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN RE\TJLUTION 105 



Regarding Soldiers of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 



MAINE INDIANS IN THE REVOLUTION 

The following article signed "N. G."' appeared in the Eastport, 
Maine, Sentinel in its issue of June 2, 1897 : 

Our forefathers of the Revolution cared little for the previous condition 
of their comrades as long as they were lighting for the same independence. 
Shoulder to shoulder stood the white man, the negro, and the Indian on 
many of the battlefields of the war and no American should hesitate for a 
moment from giving all credit for their services. 

Many oi our ancestors may have been poor, perhaps rough, homespuil 
men, but the results of their lives show that it is true tliat out of the rough- 
est work-shops of the world came the finest fabrics. The resolutions of their 
meetings prove that they were a type of manhood that our people will always 
delight to honor. Their hearts were riglit, what care we for their appear- 
xtnce? We judge them by the fruit of their lives. 

Many negro slaves entered the Revolutionary army with the understand- 
ing that in consideraticn of half their pay their masters were to give them 
their freedom. Parson Smith enlisted his slave under those terms, so did 
Parson Elvins of Scarboro and others. From Windham went the negroes 
Lonon Rhode, Flanders, Romeo, and Peter Smith, who did good service. 
Prince ran away from his master, Lieut. William McLellar, at Gorham and 
went in Capt. Manley's privateer. He returned voluntarily to slavery, be- 
came a pensioner, and lived until he was a very old man. His old master 
provided for him in his declining years, which was just like the McLellans. 

My ancestor served with Lonon Rhode, in Capt. Samuel Thomes' Com- 
pany, in Col. Benjamin Tupper's nth Massachusetts Regt. They were in the 
retreat from Fort Ticonderoga in July, 1777, and probably fought together 
in the battles of Hubbardton, Stillwater and Saratoga. On a return made at 
Valley Forge, in January, 1778, the following is the last account of those two 
patriots, "Nathan Noble, slain in battle Oct. 7. 1777," and Lonon Rhode died 
Dec. 9, 1777. Perhaps they received their death wounds the same day. Both 
of these men's names are on the Roll of Honor of the towns where they 
lived, and who would undertake to "'-dge of their services to their country 
by the standard of the color of their skins. The sacrifices of humble men 
were as noble as any in our country's Iiistnry ard it i^ American to honor 
them for it. 

The province of Maine was fortunate in its Indians in the Revolution. 
The three tribes, Penobscots, Passamaquoddys and St. Johns, were true blue 
through it all, and rendered valuable aid to our cause. In the Maine society 
of the Sons of the American Revolution is a member, Sopiel Selmor. Chief 
of the Passamaquoddy Indians, of Pleasant Point, Perry. Me. He is he. 



io6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



son of Capt. Selmor Soctoniah and Dennis Molly Selmor, and his father was 
a soldier and scout under Col. Allan at Machias, and rendered other valuable 
assistance in the War of the Revolution. Chief Sopiel Selmor is now a very 
old man, as he must be to be the son of a Revolutionary soldier, hut he is the 
patriarch of his tribe yet. In his tribe is preserved an original letter written 
them by Gen. Washington from the banks of the Delaware river, the day 
before that Christmas day that he crossed amid the floating ice. That day is 
one that o4d Marblehead is proud of because John Glover and his Cape Ann 
boys carried the army safely over, managing the boats as only Yankee tish- 
ermen can. 

The contents of that letter are as follows, and it reflects credit on the 
tribe that they have preserved it until this time. 

"Brothers of Passamaquodia : I am g^lad to hear by Major Shaw that 
you accepted the chain of friendship which I sent you last February from 
Cambridge and that you are determined to keep it bright and unbroken. 
When I first heard that yoit refused to send any of your warriors to my 
assistance When called upon by our brothers of St. John I did not know 
what to think. I was afraid that some enemy had turned your hearts 
against me. But 'I am since informed that all your young men were em- 
ployed in hunting, which was the reason of their not coming. This has made 
my mind easy and I hope you will always in future join with your brothers 
of St. Jo'hn and Penobsccot when required. I have desired my brother the 
Governor of Massachusetts Bay to pay you the money which Capt. Smith 
promised you for sending my letters to the Micmack Indians. 

"Brothers : I have a piece of news to tell you which I ho])e you will 
attend to. Our enemy, the King of Great Britain, endeavored to stir up all 
the Indians from Canada to South Carolina against us. But our brethren of 
the Six Nations and their allies the Shawnees and Delawares. would not 
hearken to the advice of his messengers sent among them, but kept fast 
hold of the ancient covenant chain. The Cherokees and the Southern tribes 
were foolish enough to listen to them and take up the hatchet against us. 
Upon this our warriors went into their country, burned their houses, 
destroyed their corn and obliged them to sue for peace and give hostages 
for their future good behavior. Now Brothers, never let the King's wicked 
counsellor turn your hearts against me and your brethren of this country but 
bear in mind what T told you last February and what I tell you now. 

"In token of my friendship I send you this from my army on the hanks 
of the Great River Delaware, tliis 24th day of December. 1776. 

"George Washington." 

At the heginning of the war there was great anxiety felt lest the British 
agents should influence the Penolyscot Indians against the colonists Steps 
were taken early to secure them to our cause. Capt. John Lane of Buxton, 
was selected as a discreet and suitable man to consult and enlist them in our 
behalf. In May, 1775, the Provincial Congress sent the tribe a letter in 
which they said "Our liberty and your liberty are the same, we are brothers, 
and what is for our good is for your good, and we, by standing together, 
i. shall make those wicked men afraid and overcome them and be all free men. 
Capt. Goldthwait has given up Fort Pownal to our enemies. We are angry 
at it and we hear you are angry with him and we don't wonder at it." 



SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN REX'OLL'TION 107 



Four Penobscot chiefs left Fort Pownal with Capt. John Lane June loth. 
On June 14th, Samuel Freeman wrote from Watertown to his father, Enoch 
Freeman, at Fahnouth Neck, "I can't help thinking but that they (the In- 
dians) s'hould be well treated, justice done them respecting their lands, etc., 
by which they now and forever be secured to the interests of the county." 
Capt. Lane was then here at Falmouth with Chief Orono, Joseph Pease, 
Poveris and one more, bound for Cambridge to the Provincial Congress. 
They were entertained and a chaise was provided to take them to their 
destination. Gen. Jedidiah Preble, chairman of the committee, sent with them 
a letter to Joseph Warren in which he said that he had furnished money to 
pay their expenses and that "Orono, the chief man, seems to be a sensible 
man and hearty in our cause," also, "We gave them assurances that they 
might depend upon being provided for while there as well as on their return 
back again, wished them a pleasant journey and that the event might be 
happy for them and us." In 1778, Joseph McLellan of Falmouth was voted, 
by the General Court, seven pounds for injury done his chaise by Capt. Lane's 
Indians. This damage was no doubt done in 1775. Drake says, "Only two 
days after the battle of Bunker Hill (June 19th) there arrived in Cambridge, 
a deputation of Penobscot Indians of whom the celebrated Orono was chief." 
They went before the Congress and among other things said that they had 
a large tract of land which they had a right to call their own and had pos- 
sessed it many years. These lands had been encroached upon by the English 
who had for miles, on the ends, cut much of the good timber. They also 
said that they had been much imposed upon by traders, and desired such 
evils be prevented, also requested that provisions, powder, etc., be sent 
among them which they would buy at reasonable prices. 

June 2ist, the Congress recognized their claim to the land at the head 
of the tide on the Penobscot, extending six miles on each side of the river. 
Gen. Washington and the Congress both promised them that they should 
"enjoy the country" and told them that if anybody was to take their lands 
from them or if they heard of anything being done against them they would 
let them know of it. 

The following letter was probably written by Andrew Gilman, the inter- 
preter for the four chiefs after their return to Falmouth Neck from Cam- 
bridge, although tiicir names, as he wrote them, are different from what has 
come down to us. 

"Falmouth, July 4, 1775. 
"Sir : We have been here five days and did expect to go home with the 
supplies for our tribe in a sloop. But we are told Captain John Lane must 
return to Watertown before supply can be sent, we have agreed to go home 
in our canoes, though we should rather go in said sloop. We beg leave to 
let you know it is our desire that Captain Lane be appointed truck-master, 
with full power to redress any insults we may receive from the white people 
when we come in to trade. You may depend on our friendship and assistance 
if required. 

"We are yiuir litinil)le servants. 

"Olenah, 
"Messhall. 
"Joseph, 
"Pooler. 
"Andrew Gilman, Interpreter." 



io8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The above letter is a testimonial to the patriotism, fidelity and honesty 
of John Lane, through whose efforts much was done that secured the friend- 
ship and aid of the Penobscot tribe to our forefathers in the Revolutionary 
War. 

'Idle Provincial Congress resolved, July 8th, 1775, to supply the Indians 
of tlie Penobscot wdth goods not to exceed in value, three hundred pounds 
and to take furs and skins in exchange. 

In September, 1775, the chiefs of the Penobscots and the St. John 
Intlians held a conference and resolved "to stand together with our brethren 
of Massachusetts and oppose the people of Old England that are endeavoring 
to take our lands and liberties from us." 

Capt. John Lane raised a company for the army and in it enlisted five 
Penobscot Indians, Soncier, Eneas, Sebatis, Metagone and Sewanockett. 
When Arnold's expedition marched up the Kennebec, in the Fall of 1775, 
three of Capt. Lane's Indians went as guides. Encos or Eneas and Sebatis 
went with a Air. Jaquith on a secret errand, in advance with letters to friends 
of our cause in Canada and were successful, meeting the expedition on their 
return. The expedition, which consisted of about eleven hundred men, left 
Fort Halifax, Sept. 27th, and started on their march to Quebec with Sewan- 
ockett for their guides. In the Dead River region nearly one-third gave 
up in despair and returned to Cambridge. Arnold abandoned his batteaux 
and forced his way through the forests and swamps. The guides could 
not lead them out of the wilderness. They suspected treachery but became 
convinced the guides had lost their way. For thirty-two days no signs of 
human life met their eyes. The men suffered dreadfully from hunger and 
cold. On Nov. 3 they reached the first Canadian settlement on the river 
Chaudiere, and Point Levi, opposite Quebec, Nov. 9th. 

In tSiS, Sewanockett applied for a pension and said that he was then 
ninety-five years of age and h.-id always been friendly to the whites, that he 
served in Capt. Lane's Co. and also in the Quebec expedition remaining with 
the army until the assault on the city, bemg honorably discharged in the 
middle of January, 1776. In 1779, he volunteered in the Bagaduce expedi- 
tion an.d stated that during the war he was in several skirmishes when several 
of his tribe were killed. 

In 1786, Massachusetts attempted to get some of the Penobscots' land 
from them and at the conference a chief stated that the tribe had been at 
Oldtown island 500 years and then that 350 blankets would give each of 
the tribe one. When an agent presented them a paper to sign relinquishing 
their lands they answered "We don't know anything about writing. All we 
know, we mean to have a right heart and a right tongue." The agents were 
unsuccessful. 

In 1796, the tribe gave up their claim to land on both sides of the river 
from Nichol's rock, in Eddington, the head of the tide, thirty miles up, 
reserving their islands in the river. This was done for a consideration. This 
land consisted of 189,426 acres and it was laid out into nine townships. By 
another treaty, in 1818, with Massachusetts, the tribe conveyed to that 
state all the remainder of their lands except the islands and four townships 
in consideration of a yearly annuity in goods worth about $1,500. Maine at 
the separation from Massachusetts agreed i-o fulfill the obligations of the 



SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 109 



trealy, and, in 1833, purchased their remaining townships for fifty thousand 
dollars. 

The -Penobscots were the Tarratines and anciently owned all the terri- 
tory watered by the Penobscot river. In 1625, the tribe were said to have 
numbered about eight thousand. In 1669, they were subdued by the Mo- 
hawks. Their lands have been encroached upon by the land grabber until 
all that remains to them are islands in the Penobscot river including Old- 
town island and all above it and attempts have been made to get those. The 
state holds a fund of theirs amounting to nearly seventy-four thousand 
dollars for which they are paid six per cent interest, which with their shore 
rents, of about three thousand dollars, with the appropriations from the state, 
leaves them in comfortable circumstances, much more so than the Passama- 
quoddys whose lands did not prove as valuable. 

Of chief Orono, Williarnson said that he "was white in part" and "Orono 
had not the copper colored countenance, the sparkling eye, the high cheek 
bones or tawny features of a pristine native. On the contrary, his eyes were 
of a bright blue shade, penetrating and full of intelligence and benignity. In 
his person he was tall, straight and perfectly proportioned; and in his gait 
there was a gracefulness wdiich of itself evinced superiority. He was honest, 
chaste, temperate and industrious. To a remarkable degree he retained hi? 
mental faculties and erect attitude to the last years of his life. As he was 
always abstemious and as his hair was in his last years of a milky whiteness, 
he resembled in appearance a cloistered saint." His wife, who was a full 
blooded native, died several years after him. Orono died, Feb. 5, t8oi, aged 
112 years. 

"For whiter Indians, to our shame we see. 
Arc not so virtuous nor humane as he. 
Disdaining all the savage modes of life, 
The tomahawk and bloody scalping knife. 
He sought to civilize his tawny race, 
Till death, great Xinirod of the human race, 
Hit on his track, and gave this hunter chase. 
His belt and wampum now aside he flung. 
His pipe extinguished and his bow unstrung. 
When countless moons their destined rounds shall cease. 
He'll spend an endless calumet of peace." 
The Penobscot tribe choose a governor, lieutenant governor and a dele- 
gate to the Legislature, to conduct their business. The state appoints an 
agent who has charge of their affairs and reports to the Legislature. The 
tribe have -lived peaceably with their neighbors since the Revolution. They 
were never what could be called savage Indians and the white man has been 
much to blame whenever they have acted in that role. 

Our forefathers pledged their word with the Indian tribes of our state 
for peace, when war meant the destruction of their homes. They promised 
them protection in their lands, and they have but little to show for it today. 
The state and the Indians have suffered together in regard to their lands from 
the avarice of the white men but now there is no hope for either to recover 
them History can only record the facts. Our ancestors promised little to 



110 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



the Indian considering what peace was worth to them. The Indians were 
faithful through the Revolution, when they had easy access to the enemy. 
now let us he faitliful to tlieni. The state should keep its trust with them as 
they did with us, and insist that they must always be honestly dealt with. 
They are not as we are, they are a different people, and we can afford to 
he patient with them and take no advantage of their weaknesses. 

"The sum of Indian happiness ! — 
A wigwam, when the warm sunshine 
Looks in among the groves of pine, — 
A stream where, round the light canoe, 
The trout and salmon dart in view. 
And the fair girl, before thee now. 
Spreading thy mat with hand of snow, 
Or plying, in the dews of morn. 
Her hoe amidst thy patch of corn 
Or offering up, at eve, to thee. 
Thy birchen dish of hominy !'' 

Andrew Oilman, the Penobscots' interpreter, seems to have been a man 
who had the respect and confidence of both the white man and the Indian. 
The following appointment shows in what estimation he was held at that 
time. The commission was given him while he was at Cambridge, as inter- 
preter for the Penobscot chiefs. 
"To Andrew Oilman, Oentleman : 

"We entertaining a good opinion of your prudence, courage, and good 
conduct, do appoint, and you the said Andrew Oilman are hereby appointed 
to the honorary title of Lieutenant; and you are to be considered of that 
rank not only among the good people of this Province, but among all friends 
and bretliren through the Continent; and we confide in your readiness to 
promote the common cause of America among our good brothers, the Indians 
of the several tribes which you may have an opportunity to be acquainted 
with, as well as with the inhabitants of the Province of Canada. 

"By order of the Congress. 
"Watertown, June 25, 1775." 

Lieut. Oilman was ordered by the President of the Congress to use his 
efforts to cultivate a friendly feeling with the Indians of St. Francois and the 
Canada Indians, and told him that he should receive a proper reward. When 
he was at Falmouth Neck with the Penobscot chiefs on their way to Cam- 
bridge, in 1775, Enoch Freeman said of him, "One Mr. Oilman is their inter- 
preter who speaks their tongue freely and seems to be a clever young man." 
He is noticed as being on guard at Penobscot with ten Indians, Sept. 12th, 
1776. 

'I'jie following roll is of a company of Indians under the command of 
Lieut. Oilman in the Bagadnce ENipedition of 1779- They were probably all 
Penobscots. They were actively engaged and from a soldier's diary we learn 
that one was killed July 25th, another Aug. 5th, when another was taken 
prisoner and probably there were others. This roll is a novelty in our Revo- 
lutionary history and service to remind us of the Indians' service in that war. 



SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION iii 



"Pay Roll for a number of Indians for their services at Penobscot on 
the late expedition under command of Lieut. Andrew Gilman, made agreeable 
to a Resolve of the Gen'l Court of the 17th, Sept. I779-" 

Andrew Gilman, Lieut., June 29th to Aug. 21st. 



Wine Meesor, 
Francis Moxes, 
Pearl Sock, 
Elqr O'sson, 
Orono, 
Atlean, 
Sowanockeg, 
Pearl Nicholah, 
Obogan, 
Joseph Cook, 
Tomases, 
Leeve, 
Shannot, 
Francis Joseph, 
Sebatis Junr, 
Cawquish, 
Atlianis Junr, 
Lewey Venison, 
Saocmiek, 
Che Osson, 



10 
10 
10 

5 
5 
3 
10 
6 

10 

5 
5 
5 
5 
10 



John Xepton, July 15th to Aug. 21. 
French Mesor, " 

Nepton Bovvit, 
Soviss Molly, " 

Soviss Many, 
Soviss Piece, 
Soctoner, " 

Solomses, " 

Poriss, 
Natlanis, 

Matignois, " 

Little Sabatis, 
Jam Holet, 
Joseph Eneas, 
Sebatis, 

Lonsor, 2^ days 

Fransway, 10 

Leard Osioro, 33 

Pernewett, 10 

Sacotiar, 20 

Peal Tocwaso, 20 

The Indians were paid 14 shillings per day. 

Boston, Oct. 4, 1779- 

"SufFold Ss. 

Personally appeared Lt. Andrew Gilman (the subscriber to this Roll) 
and made Oath that the same is just and true according to the best of his 
knowledge. 
Before 

Jonathan Metcalf, Justice of Peace." 
Massachusetts Archives, Vol. .^7, Page 145. 

A monuir.ent to the ineniory of the RevoUttionary Soldiers of 
the Penobscot tribe of Indians has been erected on Indian Island. 
Old Town. Maine, by the Bangor Chapter, D. A. R., which bears 
the following inscription : 

In honor of the 

Indian Patriots 

of the Penobscot 

and iither tribes of Maine 

for their loyal service 

during the 

Revolutionary War. 

Erected by the Maine Daughters 

of the American Revolution 

1910. 



112 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

This monument was dedicated with appropriate exercises by 
the Maine State Council. D. A. R., June 7. 1912. 



REVOLUTIONARY RECORDS OE DESCENDANTS 

OF 

NATHANIEL OAK, MARLBORO, MASS. 

The early family name in the old records is sometimes spelled 
Oak-Oaks-Oakes, but all had a common origin. 

Nathaniel Oak was the ancestor of the Oak family in Garland 
and the Oaks family in Sangerville, Maine. 

The following has been contributed by Mr. Ora Oak of Colton, 
Gal., which he has compiled from old records and other sources 
ror the Journal : 



GEORGE OAKS 

Private, Capt. David Bents' Co.. Col. Nathan Sparhawk's regt., 
marched from Rutland to Bennington on an alarm. Aug. 20, 1777; 
1 1 days service ; travel out and home 226 miles. 

SETH OAK 

Winchendon 
(i) Sergeant, Capt. Moses Hale's Co. of militia, Col. Nathan 
Sparhawk's regt., which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 
19' 1775; service, 14 days; 

(2) Also, Capt. Abel Wilder's Co., Col. Ephraim Doolittle's 
regt. ; receipt for advance pay, signed by said Oak ; dated June 
26, 1775; 

(3) Also, Sergeant, same Co. and regt.; muster roll dated 
Aug. I. 1775; engaged Apr. 26, 1775, service 3 mos., 13 days. 

(4) Also, Quartermaster Sergeant, same regt.; on a return of 
Capt. Adam Wheeler's Co.; dated Winter Hill, Oct. 6, 1775; order 
for bounty coat or money equivalent, dated Camp Winter Hill, 
Dec. 26, 1775. 



DBSCEXDAXTS OF NATHANIEL OAK 113 



(5) Also, private. Capt. Josiah Fish's Co.. Col. Stephen R. 
Bradley's regt. ; Sept. 16 to Sept 20. 1782. marched from Athens, 
Vt., toward Guilford to assist the sheriff. 



BERIAH OAK 

BoUon 
Private, Capt. Robert Longley's Co., Col. Asa Whitcomb's regt.; 
which marched on the alarm of Apr. 19, 1775 ; left rendezvous Apr. 
:27, 1775; service 10 days. 



SETH ALEXANDER 

( 1 ) Sergeant. Capt. William Humphrey's Co. in the Northern 
Army, Continental service, 1776. 

(Note — Same Company as Nathaniel Oak) 

(2) Ensign. Capt. Oliver Capron's Co., Col. Samuel Ashley's 
regt. of militia which marched to the relief of Ticonderoga. engaged 
June 29. 1778, discharged July ii. 1778 — service 13 days. 



JOHN FOLLETT 

(Second husband of Hannah Oak) 
Private. Capt. Joseph Whitcomb's Co.. Col. Samuel Ashley's 
regt., roll dated Apr. 2, 1777. 



NATHANIEL OAKES 

Bolton 
(T) Private, Capt. Benjamin Hasting's Co.; Col. John Whit- 
comb's regt.; which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. lO, 
1/75' service 18 days. 



NATHANIEL OAK 

(2) Private, Capt. William Humphrey's C... in the Xortheru 
Arjny, Continental service. 1776. 

(Grandfather of the late Hon. Lyndon Oak of Garland and 
Lis less known brothers. Lawrence, Lorenzo, Lebbeu.'- and Edson). 



114 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

EBENEZER CONANT 

(Husband of Lydia Oak — daughter of Jonathan) 
(i) Lieutenant, Capt. Dehverance Davis's Co., Col. Asa Whit- 
comb's regt. which marched on alarm of Apr. 19, 1775 ; service lo 
days ; 

(2) Also, Adjutant, Col. Abijah Steam's regt., on list of offi- 
cers of Mass. Militia, dated Leominster, March 14, 1776; appoint- 
ment concurred in by Council, June 20, 1776; also Col. Converse's 
regt.. on list of officers at Dobb's Ferry. Tarryton & North Castle, 
N. Y. in 1776; 

(3) Also, private. Capt. Wm. Thurlo's Co.. march on alarm 
at Bennington, Aug. 22, 1777, under Major Ebenezer Bridge, by 
order of Col. Warner & Gen. Stark; dismissed by Gen. Lincoln 
after proceeding 90 miles ; 9 days service ; 

(4) Also, Adjutant, Major Ebenezer Bridge's regt., service 
25 days at Saratoga, agreeable to resolve of Sept. 22. 1777; 

(5) Also, on descriptive list of men. enlisted, from Worcester 
Co. in 1779, to serve in Continental army, dated Aug. 15, 1779: 
in Capt. Lane's Co.. Col. Rand's regt. ; age 36 years, stature 5 feet, 
9 in. ; complexion, dark ; residence, Ashburnham ; enlistment, 9 
months; mustered Aug. 10, 1779; also private, Colonel's Co.. Col. 
Shepard's 4th regt.. enlisted Aug. 12. 1779. discharged Feb. 6. 1780; 
enlistment 9 months. 



JOHN OAKS. 

Harvard (also Littleton) 
(i) Private. Col. John Bailey's regt.; on Continental pay ac- 
counts for service from Mar. i, 1777 to Dec. 31. 1779, residence. 
Harvard ; credited to Harvard ; also on roll of Capt. Samuel Darby's 
Co., same regt., dated Camp Valley Forge, Jan. 25. 1778; residence, 
Littleton. 

(2) "John ( )akes." Littleton, on descrii)tive list of men raised 
to reinforce the Continental Army for 6 mos. agreeable to resolve of 
June 5, 1780. dated July 22, 1780. age 22 yrs. ; stature 5 ft. 5 in.: 
complexion, light; engaged for Harvard; also on list of 6 months 
men who passed inuster. dated Camp Totaway. Oct. 25. 1780. 
(name. "John Okes*') : also. Drummer, on pay roll of 6 months 
men raised by town of Harvard for Continental service in 1780, 



DESCENDANTS OF NATHANIEL OAK ii; 



marched July 19. 1780. discharged, Dec. 14, 1780, service. 5 mos. 4 
da., inckiding travel (180 mi.) home — (name. "John (_)ak".) 
("John Oaks, Exeter, :\Ie.. aged 84, resides with John. Jr."j 



DANIEL OAKS 

(i) Private. Capt. Joseph Warren's Co., Lt. Col. Wheelock's 
regt., enlisted Sept. ij, discharged Oct. 2^, 1777; service, i mo., 3 
da., with northern army, inckiding 8 days (150 miles) travel home; 

(2) Also, on descriptive list of men raised to reinforce the 
Continental Army for 6 months, agreeable to resolve of Jmie 5, 
1780; age 19 years, stature 5 ft. 6 in., complexion, light; engaged 
for Westboro ; marched to camp July i, 1780. discharged Dec. 19. 
1780. 200 mi. from home ; service 5 mos.. 29 da. ; also, on return of 
f) months men who passed muster, dated Camp Totaway, Oct. 25, 
1780 (name ''Daniel Oakes." Westboro) ; 

(3) Also. Private. Capt. Nathaniel Wright's Co.. Col. Luke 
Drury's regt.; from Sept. 22 to Dec. 1781; service 3 mos.. 2^) da. 
at West Point including travel (400 mi.) residence. Bolton — (name 
"Daniel Oaks"). 

(4) "Daniel Oak'", residence and date not given, member of 
the train band. 



SYLVANUS OAK. 

Princeton — (probably ) 
Sergeant. Capt. Joseph Sargent's Co. of militia. Col. Sparhawk's 
regt., \vhich marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 19. 1775 and 
returned May i. 1775; service 12 days. 



CALVIN OAK. 

Winchendon 

(i) Private. Capt. Moses Hale's Co. of militia. Col. Nathan 

Sparhawk's regt.. which marched to Cambridge on alarm of Apr. 

TO. 1775. service 6 days; reported "enlisted into the army": served 

on the main guard. Major' Loammi Baldwin, at Cambridge, list 



ii6 SIM>iAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

dated May 15, 1775 ; also receipt for advance pay signed by Sd. Oak, 
Capt. Abel Wilder's Co., Col. Ephraim Doolittle's regt., dated 
Cbarlestown, June 26, 1775; also, on muster roll same Co. and 
regt. dated Aug. i, 1775. enlisted Apr 26, 1775; service 3 mos., 13 
da. ; also, on company return dated Oct. 6, 1775. 

(2) Also, Private, Capt. Jotham Houghton's Co., Col. Josiah 
Whitney's regt. from July 31, 1778 to Sept. 14, 1778; 1 mo., 14 da., 
in Rhode Island. 

(3) Also, on descriptive list of men raised for the Continental 
service; in Capt. Boutell's Co., Col. Rand's regt.; age 20 years; 
stature 5 ft., 6 in. ; complexion, light ; engaged for Leominster, 
marched July 29, 1779; also, in Capt. Warner's Co., loth Mass. 
regt.; service July 28, 1779 to Apr. 28. 1780; term 9 mos. (name, 
"Calvin Oaks'') ; receipt for bounty, signed by said Oak, dated Aug. 
18. 1780. for <) mos. service. 



NATHANIEL OAK 

(I) His name on Pay Roll of 6 montths men raised by the 
town of Bolton for service in the Continental Army during 1780; 
marched July 10, 1780, discharged Dec. 16. 1780; service, 5 mos., 
17 days, including travel (220 miles) home; also. Nathaniel "Oaks", 
Bolton, descriptive list of men raised to reinforce the Continental 
Army for the term of 6 months, agreeable to resolve of June 5, 
1780. returned as received of Justin Ely. Commissioner, bv Brig. 
Gen. John (ilover. at Springfield, July 13. 1780: age 18 years, 
stature 5 ft. 7 in., complexion, ruddy; engaged for the town of 
Bolton, marched to camp July 13, 1780, under command of Capt. 
Thomas I'ritchard; also. Private, Lieut-Colonel's Co., 6th Mass. 
Regt. pay roll for July 1780; enlisted July 13, 1780; also Lieut. -Col. 
Whiting's Co., 6th Mass. Regt., pay roll for .August and September 
1780; also, list of men raised for 6 months service and returned 
by Brig. Gen. Paterson as having passed muster in return dated 
Camp Totaway. Oct. 25. 1780. 



NATHANIEL OAK' 

(2) I'rivate. Capt. Josiah h'ish's Co., Col. Stephen i\. P)radley's 
legt. ; Sei)t. 16, to Sept. 20, 1782. marched from .\thens. V't.. toward 
Guilford to assist the sheriff. 



{') 'l"he Pul)Ii-lic(l Vital Records of Templeton, Mass.. p. 50. say. 
"\';ith;inip!. <(>u nf Srtli ard RlizaljCth Oak, l)oni May 3, 1762." 



DESCENDANTS OF NATHANIEL OAK ir 



NATHANIEL OAK 

(Not identified but probably one of those previously mentioned ). 

(i) Private, Capt. Wm. Marean's Co.. Col. Jonatlian Reed's 
(1st.) regt. of guards; nu;ster roll dated Cambridge, June i, 1778; 
enlisted Mar. 28, 1778. enlistment, 3 months, from Apr. 2. 1778; 
also, Capt. Wm. Marean's Co., Col. Steam's regt. of guards, service 
from Mar. 2-j , 1778 to July 2, 1778. 3 mos., 6 days, at Cambridge, 
guarding troops of convention. 

(2) Also. Private. Capt. Josiah WiMer's Co.. Col. Nathan 
Sparhawk's regt.. commanded by Major Daniel Clap, enlisted July 
4. 1778; discharged July 15. 1778; service 12 days at Rutland 
Barracks : company raised for 20 days service. Roll dated Temple- 
ton. 



NATHANIEL OAK 

Private, Capt. Jotham Houghton's Co.. Col. Josiah Whitney's 
regt.. service from July 31, 1778. to date of discharge Sept. 14. 
1778. I mo.. 15 days, at Rhode Island; company raised for 6 weeks 
service ; roll dated Petersham ; also. Capt. Jotham Houghton's Co., 
Col. Sanuiel Denny's (2nd) regt.. Gen. Fellow's brigade; service 
from Oct. 24, 1779 to Dec. 12. 1779. i mo.. 9 days at Claverack, 
roll dated Petersham. 



NATHANIEL OAKES 

Private. Capt. Benj. Edgell's Co., Col. John Jacob's regt.. en- 
listed June 30, 1778, service 6 mos., 7 days, including travel ( 100 
miles) home, enlistment to expire Jan. i. 1779; also, same Co. 
and Regt.; nuister rolls dated Freetown. Sept. 13 and Oct. 18. 1778. 



The Chief Justices of the Courts of Sessions for the counties in 
the new State of Maine for 1820 were: York. Joseph Thomas. 
Kennebunk ; Cumberland, Animi R. Mitchell. N. Yarmouth; Ox- 
ford. Daniel Stowell, Paris; Lincoln, Ebenezer Clapp. Bath: Ken- 
nebec. Samuel Wood, Winthrop ; Somerset, Calvin Selden. Nor- 
ridgewock ; Hancock, Phineas Ashman, Brooks ; Penobscot, Enoch 
Brown, Hampden ; Stephen Jones. ^Fachias. 



ii8 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

(Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor (Maine) 

Public Library.) 

(Continued from page i8, Vol. 6.) 



List. Name. 


Sejvice. 


Rank. 


Age. 


County. 


Remarks. 


'35c 


Cain, David 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


67 


York 


'20). d. March 
1825. 


'35c 


Cain, Nichola;- 


M.-.ss. line 


Piivate. . . . 


72 


Lincoln 


Transf. from Suf- 
folk Co., Mass. 
1820. d. Sept. 4, 
1826. 


•35d 


Calderwood, John . . 


Cont. navy . . . 


Maiine. . . . 


81 


Walao 




'40 


. 






88 


Waldo 


Res. Lincoln\ ille. 


'35c 


Calderwood, Thos. . 


Mass. line 


Pri^ ate. . . . 


81 


Lincoln 


d. Dec. 12, 1831. 


'40 








80 
64 


Kennebec . . . 
York 




'35c 


Camniett, Samuel . . 


N. H. line .... 


Private. . . . 


('20, '31b.) 


'35c 


Campbell, Alexandei 


Mass. line 


Private 


72 


Cumberland . 


('20) d. Feb. 15, 
1827. 


■35d 


Campbell, James. . . 


Mass. state .... 


Pvt. of art. 


79 


Lincoln. 




'35d 


Campbell, James . . . 


N. H. line 


Pvt. and 














drum maj 


1 1 


Kennebec . . . 


('20 as musician). 


'40 









81 


Kennebec . . . 


Res. Wales. 


'40 








4V 


Cumberland 


Res. Minot. 


"3oc 


Campeinell, William 


Mass. line .... 


Private . . . 


95 


York. 




'40 








80 
4-. 


York 

Lincoln 




'40 








R e s. Woolwich, 










Smith or Fair- 














field. 


'35d 


Carc^ , LutLer 


Mass. state. . . . 


Musician . . 


73 


Oxford 


Same as Cary, L. 


'35c 


Carej , feinieon 

Carl, Ebe.aezei, 


Mass. line 

see Carll. 


Piivr.te .. . 


70 


Lincoln 


('20) d. May,lS25 


'35c 


Carl, John 


Mass. line 


Seigeant . . 


77 


Kennebec . . . 


('20) d. Sept. 17, 














1832. 


'35d 


Carl, Joseph 


Mass. mil 


Piivatc.. .. 


81 


Waldo . . . 




'35d 


Caile, John 


.Ma.ss. line .... 


Private. . . . 


in 


Yoik. 




'40 


Carle, William 






77 


Franklin. . . . 












as Carll, W.? 


'40 








79 


Kenrebec. . . . 












san:e as Cailton 
J. 
San c as Carlton, S 


'3oc 


Carleton, Samuel. . 


Mass. line . . . . 


Private. . . . 


SO 


Lincoln 


'35d 


Carlisle, James 


.Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


76 


Yoik. 




35 c 


Carlisle, John 


-V. H. line. . .. 


Private. . . . 


78 


Yoik 


i'20). 


'35d 




Mass. mil 


Piivate. . . . 
Private . . . 


73 
78 


Lincoln. 
Lincoln 




'35c 


Caill, Ebenezer 


Mass. line 


('20 as Carl) all 














given Cairoll. 


"40 








82 
70 


Yoik 

Somerset .... 


Res. Hollis. 


•35d 


Carll, William 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


Same as Carle W.? 


'35c 


Carlton, Ezra 


N. H.line 


Private. . . . 


69 


Oxfoid 


('20). 


'40 








76 
73 
59 
73 


Franklin .... 
Kennebec . . . 

Waldo 

Kenrebec. . . 


Res. Letter E. 


'35c 






Private. . . . 


('20). 


'40 






Res. Frankfort. 


'35c 


Carlton, Jonathan . . 


Mass. line 


Private, . . . 


('20) Same as 














Carleton J. 


'20 


CaiUon, Samuel. . . . 


Mass. line 


Piivate.. .. 






SameasCarleton S 


35d 


Carpenter, Thoinas. 


N. H. state. . . . 


Piivate. . . . 


71 


Yoik 




'40 


Carr, William 






76 

78 


York 

Waldo 


Res. W atcrboio'. 


•35c 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . . 


('20). 


'40 


Carrell, Benjamin . . 






84 
73 


Waldo 

Kennebec. 


Res. Frankfort. 


'35d 


Mass. state. . . . 


Private.... 






Can oil, Ebenezer, 


see Carll. 










■ '35c 


Caison, James 


Del. line 


Private 


.79 


Washington , 


d. Oct. 28, 1832. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 119 



List. 



Name. 



Seivice. 



Rank. 



Age, 



Countj . 



Remarks. 



'35d 
'40 
'35c 
'35c 
'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

'35d 

'35d 
'40 
'35c 
'35d 
'35c 
'35c 

'40 

1792 

1794 

'35c 

'40 

'40 



'35c 

'40 
'35d 
1794 

'40 
'40 

'40 

'35d 
'35c 

'35d 

'35c 

'35c 
'35c 

'35d 

'35c 

'3Sd 
'40 

'35c 
'40 
'40 

'35d 

'35d 
'40 
'40 

'35e 
35c 

'35c! 

'35d 
'40 

'35c 



Carter, Abijah . . . 
Carter, Abijah . . . 
Carter, Edward . . 

Carter, John 

Carter, Thaddeua 

Carter, Thomas . . 
Carthill, Pelutiah 
Carvill, Mercy. . . . 
Caiy, Luther .... 



Caryell, David. 
Case, Isaac . . . . 



Casewell, Simeon . 

Cash, John 

Cash, John 

Cash, Samuel . . . . 



Cashman, Andrew . 
Cass, Moses 



Cass, Moses 



Caswell, Simeon . 



Caswell, Squiie. 



Causland, Robert M 

Cay, John 

Chadbourn, Levi, . . 



Chadbouin, Seam- 

mon 
Chadbouin, Simeon 



Chadbouine, Cum- 

mon. 
Chadbourne, Silas . . 



Chadbourne, Simeon 
Chad wick, James. .. 

Chambeilain, Aaron 

Chamberlain, Eph- 
raim. 

Chamberlain, Eph- 
laini. 

Chambeilain, Jere- 
miah. 

Chamberlain, John. 

Chambeilain, John . 



Chamberlain, Moses 
Charnbertin, Mary. . . 
Chandler, Hannah. 

ChanUlei, John 

Chandler, John . . . 



Chandler, John 

Chandler, Moses. . . 
Chandler, Moses . . . 
Chandler, Moses . , . 
Chandlei, Nathaniel 



Chaney , John. 



'35c Chaney, John . . . 
'20 Chaplin, Daniel. 



Mass. mil. 



N. H.line. 
N. H. line. 
Mass. line , 



Mass. state . 



Mass. mil . 
R. I. mil . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 



Private. 



Private. 
Private . 
Private. 



Private. 



Priv'te and 
Sergeant 
Private. . . 



Private . 
Private. 
Private . 
Private. 



3d N, H. line. 



N. H.line. 



Mass. line Private 



Private. 



Private. 



Mass, line 

Wigglesworth's 
regiment. 



Mass. mil. 
Mass. line . 



. . Mass. mil 
Mass. line . . 



Private. 
Piivate. 



Private. . . . 
Lieutenant 



Sergeant 
Piivate. . 



Mass. line Private. 

Mass. line Piivate. 



Mass, mil Private. 

Conn, line Private. 



Mass. mil. 



IMass. line Piivate 



Private. 



R. L line Piivate. 

Mass, line Private. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 
N. H. line. 
Mass, line , 



Mass. line . 



Mas 
Mas 



line . 
line , 



Corporal . 
Coipoi al 
Pri\ate. . 
Piivate. . 



Private. . , 



Private. 
Piivate. 



Cumberland. 

Oxford 

Hancock. , . 

\ork 

Kennebec . . 



Waldo . 
Waldo. 
Lincoln . 
0.\f ord . 



Waldo. 

Kennebec . . 

Kennebec . . 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 

York. 

Cumberland 



79 Kennebec. 



Someiset . . . 
Someiset . . . 
Cumberland 



Oxford . 



Somerset . . . 
Cumberland. 
Yoik 



York 
Y ork . 



Y ork . 



York 

Cumberland 

York 

Kennebec . . 

Cumberland . 
Oxford 



Cumbeiland 



71 Lincoln. 



84i Cumbeiland, 

goto York 

100 

73 Kennebec . . . 

80!Yoik 

75JKennebec . . . 

79i Kennebec . . . 

75!Cumberlard. 

82'CunibeiUind 

78 Kennebec . , . 
Kennebec . . . 
Kennebec . . , 

Oxfoid 

Cumberland 
Cumbeiland 
Lincoln . . , . 



CI 



Kennebec 



Res. Waterford. 
('20) d. Apr, 1827. 
d. Mar. 1822, 
('20 as Thadeus) 
d.June 16, 1828 
Res. Montville. 

Res. Lewiston. 
Res. Turner ; same 
as Carey, L. 



Res. Readfield. 
Same as Caswell? 
('20). 

('20) d. Aug. 4, 

1818. 
Res. Leeds; same 

as Cushman,A.? 
Maimed at Valley 

Forge. 
Res. Hallow ell. 
('20). 

Res. Coinville. 
Res. Hairison. 
Same as Casewell 

S? 
('20) d. August 13 

1821. 
Res. Pittsfield. 

Wounded in R. 1., 

Aug. 1778. 
Res.Paisonsfield 
Res. S. Berwick. 

Res. Lyman; same 
as Chadbourne, 
S. 

Same as Chad- 
bouin, Seamon? 

('20 as C h a d- 
boum) d. June 
15, 1823. 

Same as Chad- 
bourn, S, 

("20) d. Oct. 25, 
1826. 

d. Sept. 11, 1831 

d. Nov. 1827. 

d. Dec. 23, 1832. 

('20) d. Oct. 26, 
1831. 

Res. Buxton. 

C20). 

Res. So. Berwick. 
Res. Winthiop. 
i'20),. . . 

Res. Minot. 
Res. Augusta, 
d. June 1, 182S. 
^20'). 
(■20). 

Res. Minot. 

('20) d. Sept. II, 

1827. 
Same as Cheney, J. 



\2o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. 



•35:1 
'3.5cl 

'40 
•35d 

'40 
'35c 

'35c 
'35d 

'40 
'35c 
'35e 

'40 
'35d 

'40 
■35d 

'40 
'35d 

'40 
'35c 

'40 
'35d 

'40 
'31b 

'20 
'35c 
'35d 

'40 
'35c 

'35d 



'40 
■ '2? 

'40 
'35:. 
'35d 

'40 
'35d 

'40 
'40 

'35a 
'40 

'35d 



'35d 

'40 
•40 



'35c 

■40 

'35c 



'35c 
•35d 
•35o 
•35d 
•35(1 
'40 
'35a 

•35d 

'35c 

•35d 
'40 



Chaplin, David. 



Chaplin, Da\ id 

Chaplin, .John 

Chaplin, Lydia 

Caapniin, tienjamin 
Chapman, Benjimin 
Chapnia:i, Nathaniel 

Chase, Benjamin. . 
Chase, Ebenezer . . . 



Chase, Ezekiel . 
Chase, Ezekiel . 
Chase, Ezekiel. 
Chase, Isaac . , 



Chase, Isaac 

Chase, Nathaniel 

Chase, Robert 

Chase, Thomas. . . 



Cheats, Ebenezer 



Cheney, John. . . 
Chesley, Sawyer. 
Chick, Isaac . . . . 



Chick, John. 
Child, Amos . 



Childs, Amos. . . . 
Childs, Ebenezer. . 
Childs, Ebenezer . 

Childs, Enoch 

Chipman, William 

ChoUe, Ebenezer . 



Church, Amoi . . 
Church, Charles. 
Church, Chailes. 
Church, John. . . 



Church, Samuel . . . 
Church, Su annah 
Churchell, Jabez . . 



Churchill, Jabez. . 
Churchill, Jabish. 



Churchill, James . . 
Churchill, Joseph.. 
Chuirhill, Josliua 
Chuicl.iU, Josiah . 
Churcl.ill, William. 
C'hurcliill, William 
Cliute, Josiiih 



Chute, Jo.nah 
Clark, Bunker 
Clark, Charles 



.Mas 



Mass. line. 
Mass. state . 



Mass. mil . 
Mass. line 



N. H. line 
Mass. mil. 



R. I. line. . 
Mass. line . 



Mass. mil . . 
Mass, state. 



Mass. mil. . 
N. H.'line' 
Cont. nr.vy 



Mass. line. 
N. H. line. 
Mass. mil . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line and 
state. 



Mass. line . 



Mass. mil 



Mass. mil 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Private. 



Piivate. . . . 
Private. . . . 



Private. . . . 

Piivate. . . . 

Private. . .. 

PiiMite of 

ai tiller J 



Private. . 
Private . 



Piivate. . . . 
Private. . . 



Private. 
Private. 



Mariner & 
Private. . 



Private. . . 

Private. . . 
Private. . . 
Private. . . 



Private . . . 

Musician & 
Mus. of 
art. 



Captain . 



Priv ate . . . 
Pri^ ate . . . 



Private. 



Private. . . 



Pvt.,Drum- 
mer and 
Corp. 

Private. . . . 



f>ergeant. . 



Private. 



Mass. line . . 
Mass. mil . . 
Mass. line . 
Mass. state . 
Mass. state. 



Mass. mil . 
Mass. line. 
N. H. line 
Mass. mil. 



Private. . 
Private . 
Private. . 
Serjeant. 
Pri^ ate. . 



Sergeant . . 

Pvt., Corp 

andSerg. 

Private. . . . 

Private. . . . 



Age. 



00 



County. 



Oxford . 



Oxford. 
Cumberland. 

Ox.ord 

Kennebec. 

Lincoln 

.Somerset 

Kennebec . . 
Lincoln. 

Lincoln 

Penobscot . . 

Penobscot. 

Piscataquis. 

Cumberland. 

Cumbeiland 

Lincoln. 

I..incoln .... 

Oxford. 

Oxford 

Lincoln .... 
Lincoln .... 
Oxford 



Remarks. 



84 Oxford 



75 



52 



Kennebec 
York. 

York 

Lincoln . 



('20) Age prob- 
ably incorrectly 

given. 



Res. Waterfoid 

Res. Nobleboio'. 
('20) d. Jan. 

1819. 
^20). 



Res. Edgecomb. 
('20, '■i\h). 

Res. Sebec. 

Res. Standish. 

!Res. Bowdoin. 

Res. Buckfield. 
1('20). 

Res. Georgetown. 

('20, ship "AUi- 
' ance'^) CSlb). 

Res. Livermore. 

Perhaps same as 
^ Chuate, E. 

Same as Chaney. 

d. May 29, 1823. 



Kennebec 



Kennebec . . 

Kennebec. . . 

Franklin . . . 
7.5' Somerset . . . 
70 Oxford 

Oxford 

Cumberland 



Cumberland 
Kennebec . . 
Somerset . . . 
Franklin . . . 



81 Somerset. 



Kennebec. 
Somerset . . . 
Oxford 

Oxford. ... 

Oxford 

Oxford 

Kennebec . 
Waldo. 

Oxford 

Cumberland 
Kennebec. 

Oxford 

Cumheiland 

Cumheilai.d 

Kennebec . . 

Kennebec. 
Kennebec . . 



Res. York. 

('20) d. June 23, 

1826. 
(■20). 



Res. Vassalboro'. 

Invalid. ('35a) 

Res. Farmington. 

d. Jan. 7, 1834. 

(20). 

Res. Oxford. 

('20). 

Res. Bridgton. 
Res. Augusta. 
('20, '31b). 
Res. Phillips. 



Res. Mercer. 

Re=. Buckfield, 
same as Churc- 
hill, Jabish? 

(•20). 

Res. Hartford. 

(•20 as Jabesh) 
Same as Churc- 
hell, J.? 

(•20). 

I'L'O). 

d. Jan. 30, 1833. 

Res. Livermore. 
Pensioned July 11, 
177(i. 

(■2(J). 

(•20) d. May 10, 
1819. 



Res..\ugu8ta. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 121 



List. 


Name. 


Service. 


Rank, 


Age 


County. 


Remarks. 


•35d 


Clark, Charlef G . . . 


Mass. mil . . . . 


Piivate . . . 


70 


Yoik. 




'40 


. 






75 


York 




'35c 


Clark. David 


Mass. line .... 


Pri^ate . . 


73 


Cumberland . 


020). 


'35e 


Clark David 


3d regt Mass 








('291 d. Mar. 18. 
1831. 






line. 








'3od 


Clark, Ebenezer. 


Mas-s. mil 


Private.. . 


82 


Yoik. 




'3.5c 


Cla:k, Ebenezer. . . . 


N. H. liae 


Private.. . 


10 


York 


d. Dec. 25. 1831. 


'20 


Clark, Eleazer 


N. H. line 


Filiate. .. 






Pio J. same as EL- 














enezei . 


'31b 


Clark, Ephir.im . . . 




Private. . 


— 






•35d 


Claik, Ephraim .... 


Conl. iia'. y . . . 


Mariner. . . 


78 


York 


('20, ship '■Alli- 
ance"). 


'40 








84 




Res. Limington. 


'35c 


Clark, Hanson .... 


Mass. line 


Piivate . . . . 


78 


Kennebec. 


'35c 


Claik, James 


Mags, line 


Private 


73 


Pe.iohscot . . . 


(■20) ('31b, as 
James 2d.) 


'40 


. 






77 


Penobscot . . . 


Res. Newpoit. 


'40 


Clark, .Janiea 






51 


Waldo 


(,'20 as James 2d) 














Res. Fiankfort. 


'35d 


Claik, John 


Mass. state. . . . 


Private 


7.') 


Yoik. 




'35d 


Claik, John 


N. H. line 


Ensign. . . . 


78 


Someiset. 


d. Sept. 2, 1832. 


'20 


Clark, Jonathan. . . . 


Mass. line 


Lieutenant 


— 




('31b). 


'35c 


Clark, Joseph 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


70 


Lincoln 


(■20). 


'40 


Clark, Josir.h 






74 
70 


Lincoln 

Yoik 




'35d 


N. H. line 


Piivate 


('20). 


'40, 








88 
81 


York 

Lincoln 




'35c 


Clark, Thomas 


Mass line 


Piivate . . . 


('20) d. 1821. 


'35d 


Clark, William 


N. H. mil 


Piivate. . . . 


8j 


York. 




'40 


Clay, Benjamin. . . . 






8s 
67 


York 

York 




'35c 


Mass. line 


Pri^ ate. . . . 


('20, '31b). 


'35d 


Cleaves, Abraham. . 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . 


71 


Kennebec. 




'40 


Cleaves, Edmund.. 






7f. 
7,s 


Kennebec. . . 
Cumberland 


Res. Windsor. 


'35c 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


(■20) d. June 29, 














1828. 


'35c 


Clea\es, William. . . 


Mass. line 


Private. , . . 


79 


Cumberland . 


('20). 


'-10 


Clea\ es, William . . . 






80 
SO 


Cumberland . 
Penobscot . . . 


Res. Cumberland. 


35c 


Clewley, Isaac 


.Mass, line 


Private. . . . 


('20 as Clewly). 


•35c 


Clitloiu, Da^ id 


N. H.line 


Private. . . . 


65 


Lincoln 


(•20). H 


'31b 


Clough. Benjanun . 
Clough, Benjamin. . 




Private. . . 
Pvt and 


70 


Cumberland. 




'35d 


.Mass. line 










drummer 








'35d 


Clough, Benjamin. 


Mass line 


Private. . . . 


70 & 

79 
75 
74 


Kennebec . . 


('20). 


'40 


Clough, John 






Kennebec . . . 
Somerset .... 


Res. Monmouth. 


'35c 


N. H. line 


Private. . . . 


('20). 


'40 








80 


Franklin. . . , 


Res. Phillips. 


1794 


Clcugh, Noah 


Arnold's legt. 


Private. . 


Wounded at Que- 








bec, Dec. 31, 














1775. Res. 














.\iundel. 


'35c 


Cluff, No.ih 


.M;'.:s. line 


Private. . . 


70 


York 


{'20) Prcb. identi- 
cal with pre- 
ceediiig. Transf. 
from Mass. 1819 
d. Sept. 1824. 


'35c 


Coambs, John 


N. H. line 


Pri^ ate. . 


7S 


Kennebec . . . 


Same as Coombs? 
Transf. fiom 
Meirimac Co., 
N. H. 1826. 


'35d 


Cobb, Daniel 


.Mas.s. mil . . . . 


Pri. of art. 


72 


Cumbeiland. 




'40 








79 


Cumbeiland 


Res. Poitland. 










Tiansf. to Bris- 














tol Co., Mass. 


'29 


Cobb, David 


Mass 


Capt.of ait 








'35e 


Cobb, David 


5 regt., Mass. 
line. 


Lieut. Col. 


— 


Hancock 


Transf. to Biistol 
Co., Mass. 


'35c 


Cobb, Ebenezei. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


67 


Oxfoid 


'20, d. May 9, 
1^26. 


'35J 


Cobb, Malhtiah. . . 


-Mass. line .... 


Pvt.&Serg. 


79 


Somerset .... 


('20 as Milatial.). 


'35 _ 


Cobb, Nathaniel .. . 


.Vlass. line 


Pvt.&Co;p. 


85 


Cumberland. 




'35c 


-obb, Rol.md 


-\Iass. line 


Private. . . . 


78 


Lincoln 


('20). 


'4o 


Cobb, Rowland. 






82 
72 


Lincoln 

Cumberland . 


Res. Warren. 


'35c 


Co.'jb, Silvanus .... 


.vlass. line 


Private. . . 


('20). 


'35a 


Cobb, William. . . 


-M .;s. state. . . . 


Piivate . . . 


70 


O.xford. 




'4 ) 


Cob'idge, Joreph 
Coburn, Jeptha . . . 






75 


Oxord 

Ox.ord 


Res. Hcbioi. 


'35 


.\lasi. line 
\Iass. line 


Pi ivate . . . 

Private . . 




'35c 


T2 


Kennebec . . . 


Transf. from Mid- 














d 1 e s e X Co., 














Ma -3. 182r. 



122 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Service. 



Rank. Age. 



Count J . 



Remarks. 



'40 
•35c 



Coburn, Jephthah . 
Coburn, Moses. . . 



'?5d Coffin, Isaac 

•4b 

'3oc Coffin, Nathaniel. 



'35c 

'35c 

•35d 

'40 



'35d 
'35c 



Coffin, Nicholas . 
Coffin, Peter. . . 
Coftfen, Robert . 
Cofren, Robert . 



Cogswell, Northend, 
Coker, William 



'40 Colbath, Leighton. 

'3.5d!Colheth, Peter. . . . 

'40 Colbey, Benjamin 

'40 Colborn, Thomas.. 

[35d Colbroth, Lemuel . 

'35d,Colbuin, Ebenezer 

'40 Colbuin, Heniy . . 

'35c Colburn, Thomas. . 



'35d 
'40 

'35d 

'3od 
'4,0 

•35.1 
'40 

•35c 
•46 
'20 
'40 

'35c 

'35d 
'35d 
'35d 
•35c 
•35d 
'40 
'35d 
'35d 

'2S 
'35c 
'35c 

•40 
•35 

'40 
'35d 

'40 

'40 

'40 



'35 c 
•40 
•20 

'35d 

'35(1 



Colbuin, William. 

Colby, Benjamin . 
Colby, Eber.ezer . 



Colby, James .... 
Colby, James .... 
Colby, Samuel, 2d . 
Colby, Samuel . . 
Colby, Samuel . . 
Colby, Samuel . . . 
Colby, Sj Jvanus. . 



Colcord, Josiah. 

Cole, Abel 

Cole, Abijah . . 
Cole, Ba.inet. . 
Coje, Benjamin . 
Cole, Edward . 
Cole, Eleazei . . 
CoJe, Eli 



Cole, Henry . . 
Cole, Isaiah. . 
Cole, John. . . 

Cole, Mary C. 
Cole, Samuel . 



Colley, Richard. 
Co^le.^, William. 
Collings. Daniel . 



Collings. Lemuel , 



Collins, Benjamin 



Collins, Daniel . 
Collins, Daniel 



Collins, David 



Mass 



Private. 



Mass. mil ..... ;Pri\atc. 



Mass. line 
N. H.line. 
N. H.line. 
N. H.line. 



Mass.mil Private. 

Cont. navy. . Pri\ate. 



Lieutenajit 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 



Mass. mil . 



Mass. mil. . 
Mass, sjate. 



N. H.line 



Pvt. of art 



Piivate. . 

Pii\ate. . 



Mass. mil . 



Mass. mil. 
N. H. state. 



Mass. mil . 
Mass .line . 



Private . 



Private 



Sergeant 
Piivate. . 



81 Fianklin. 
69 Oxford. . 



78 



79 



Vork. 

VorK 

Waldo. . . 
Waldo ... 
Oxford . . 
Kennebec 
75 Kennebec 



72 Vork. 
74 Lincoln . 



451 Penobscot 
831 Wasfiington 
89 Somerset . 

82 Franklin . 

71 Kennebec 
73 Waldo. 

79; Waldo. . . 
70 Kennebec 



74|Penobscot. 
79| Penobscot . 
84| Kennebec , 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 



Piivate. 
Piivate. 



Piii ate. 
Private. 



70 



N. H. line Private 

Mass. state .. . . Private. 

Mass. line Pri\ate. 

Mass. line [Private 

Mass. mil Private. 



ioik. 
York .... 
Kennebec. 
Lincoln . 
Lincoln. . . 
Lincoln . . 



Cumberland 
Lincoln 



79 Yoik. 



Mass. state. . . . Sergeant 
Mass. line Private.. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 



2d Lieut. 
Piivate. . , 
Private. . . 



Lincoln. 
Hancock. 
Kennebec . 
Kennebec. 
Waldo. . . 
Oxford . . . . 



74' York. 



79 Lincoln. 
77I Kennebec 



Mags, line . 
Mass. line . 



Mass. line . 
N. H. line. 



R. I. lin< 



Private. . 
Private. . 



Lincoln ... 

Lin,coln 

Lincoln 

Cumbeiland 
Cumberland 
Cumbeiland . 

Fianklin . 



83lFranklii 



Pri\ ate. 



Private . 
Piivate. 



Pvt . and 
Marir.e. 



Somerset . 
Some I set . 



Somerset . 
Somerset . 



Res. New Shajon. 

Transf . from Mid- 
dlesex, Co., Mass 
1824. 

Res. Lyman. 

d. July 23, 1823. 

('20). 

(•20). 

(•20 N. H. line)' 
Res. Vienna. 
('31b). 

(•20 Mariner, ship 
"Boston^^j d. 
1824. 

Res. Exetex. 

Res. Embden. 

Same as Colby? 
Res. Wilton Same 

as Colburn, T? 
See also Coolbroth 

Res. Knox. 

Same as Colboin? 
Transf. from 
Stafford Co., N. 
H. 1822. 

Res. Oiono. 
Same as Colbejr? 

Res. Newfield. 

Res. Webster. 

120^. 

Res. Wtstfort. 

Res. Portland. 
(•20) d. Fel , 2. 
1833. 



(•20). 

Res. Irankfoit.. 
d. Aug. 4, ,1833. 
(.'20) d. Dec. 16., 

1832. 
Invalid. 

(20,' 3 lb) See also 

Cool. 
Res. Waldoboio' 
(•20). 
Res. Lewiston. 

Res. Cumberland. 
Rrs. Falmouth. 

Same as CuUey? 
Res:. Industry. 

See also Collins. 

D. 
Res. Industry. 

See also Collins,. 

L. 
(•20). 

Res. St. Albans. 
('31b) 
Same as Collings,. 

D. 
(31 b) Ship "Al- 
fred". See also- 

Collings. 



RE\'OLUTIOXARY PENSIONERS' IN MAINE 123 



List. 


Name. 


Service. 


Rank. 


Age.j Coiinty. 

1 


Remarks. 


'35c' 


Collins, Daniel 


Cont. navy. . . . 


Mariner. . . 


79 


Someiset .... 


(31b). 


'a5d 


UoUins, Joseph 


Mass, mil ..... 


Piivate. . . . 


74 


Cumbeiland . 




'40 








SO 




Res. Gaidiner. 
C'20) see also Col- 


'35d 


Collins, Leniuf 1 , . , 


Mass. line 


V^t. and 


77 


Kennebec . . . 








Pvt. of 






lings. 








artillei J . 








'35d 


IJollins, Philemon. . .! 


Mass. mil 


Private , . . 


74 


Somerset. 




'35d Colling, Rie'iard . . . 


Mass. line 


Piivate. ... 


SJ 


Washington. 




'3oc Collins, Solomon ... 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . . 1 


72 


Hancock. | 




'40 
'20 






1 


77 


Waldo 




Ilolson, David 


Mass. line .... 


Piivate. ... 




'35c Co'.son, Hateevil. . . .'' 


Mass. line 


Piivate . . . . 1 


84 


Hancock. . . . 


d. June 26, L82L 


'35c Combs, Hezekiah. . 


Mass. line .... 


Private... 


73 


Lincoln 


(•20) d. June 19, 
1830. 


'20 



























Coims, H. 


'35d Combs, William . . . 


Mass. line .... 


Private . . . 


SI 


Cumberland . 


Same as Coombs, 

W. 
('20, •31b). 


'35d 


Conant, Penjamin 


Mass. line 


Private ... 


78 


Oxfojd 


'40 


Conant, Syh'ia, .... 






X4 


Oxfoid 


Res. Turner. 










65 
48 
69 


Hancock .... 
Aroostook . . 
Oxfoid. 




■40 








'40 










'35c Cone, Elijah 


Mass. line 


Pii-vate .. . 




'35c Cone, Samu«l 


Conn. line .... 


Frigate 


80 


Penobscot . . 


('20). 


•40 






S() 


Penobscot . . . 


Res. Hampden. 


'35d 


Conej, Daniel 


Mass. mil .... 


Pvt. and 
Lieut. 


82 


Kennebec . . . 


Same as Cony. 


'35c Conn, Jonathan . . . . 


Mass. line. ... 


Coipoial. . . 


80 


Oxfojd 


('20). 


'40 


Cony, Daniel 






87 


Kennebec . . . 










Same as Coney. 


'3.5c Cook, David 


Mass. line 


Captain . . 


73 


Cumberland . 


('20) Invalid. 














pensionei under 














act of 1791. d. 














Oct. 27, 1823. 


'35d 


Cook, Eli 


Mass. line 


Private . . . 


76 Cumberland . 


('20). 


'35c 


Cook, Joseph 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


72 


Kennebec . . . 


('20). 


'40 








87 
77 


Yoik 

Somerset 




'35c 


Cook, Saul 


Mass. line 


Plicate. . 




'40 








82 


Kennebec 


('20). Res. Litch- 










field. 


'35c 


Cookson, Reuben.. 


Mass. line 


Pii\ ate . 


84 


Kennebec . . . 


('20) d. Feb. 14, 
1829. 


'35d 


Cool, John 


Mass. line 


Private ... 


79 


Kennebec . . . 


('20, 31b). 


'40 


Coolbroth, Daniel. . 






83 
SO 


Kenr.ebec . . . 
Oxfoid 




'35c 


Mass. line 


Private.. . 


See also Colbioth. 


'40 








79 


Oxford 












as Coblidge? 


'20 


Coolidge, Silas. . . . . 


N. H. line 


Piivate. . . 


— 






'35c 


Coolidge, Silas 


Mass. line 


Pri\ale .. 


78 


Hancock. 




'35d 


Coombs, John 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . 


78 


Cumbeiland . 


See also Coambs. 


'40 








77 
77 


Cumbeiland . 
Cumberlr.nd . 


Res. Harpsv^ell. 
(■20, 31b). 


'35d 


Coombs, Joseph S. . 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . . 


'40 


Coombs, Rachel. . . . 
Coombs, William. . . 






79 
86 


Lincoln ... 
Cumbeiland . 




'40 






Res. Haipsvvell. 

Same as Combs, 

W. 
(20) d. Oct. 31, 










'35c 


Cooms, Samuel C . 


Mass. line 


Privr.te . . . 


75 


Lincoln 














1826. 


'35c 


Cooper, .\lexander.. 


Mass. line 


Piivate ... 


90 


York 


('20). 


•35c 


Coims, Hosea 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . 


65 


Hancock . . . 


Prob. same as 
Combs, H., d. 
June 14, 1824. 


'35c 


Cornish, John 


Mass. line 


Private . . 


71 


Cumbeiland . 


(•20). 


'4C 


Cotton, John 






8-1 
97 


Cumbeiland . 

Lincoln . . . . 




'35c 


Mass. line 


Private , . 


(,'20, quartermas- 














ter serg.) d.May 














20, 1824. 


'35c 


Couch, John 


Mass. line 


Private. . . 


68 


Kennebec . . 


('20) d. Sept. 5, 

1825. 
Re« Hallovvel! 


'40 








54 

! 06 


Kennebec. . . . 
Yoi k 


'35c 


Cousens, Ebenezei 


Mass. line 


Private. . . 


('20), CSlb, as 










1 




Cousins). 


•35d 


Cousins, Nathaniel. 


Mass. state. . . . 


Corp. and 
Lieut. 


89 


York 


d. Aug. 13, 1832. 


'35c 


Cousins, Samuel. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private . .. 


74 


Waldo 


(•20). 


'35d 


Covall, Judah 


Mass. mil 


Pvt. and 
Seig. 


76 


Waldo. 





124 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 



Name. 



Seivice. 



Rank. 



Age. 



County. 



Remarks. 



'40 

'40 

'35r 

'40 
'35c 
'35c 

'40 
'35c 

'35c 



'35cl 
'35d 
'40 
'35d 
'35d 

'35d 
'35c 

'35c 
'40 

'35d 

'35d 

40 

'35d 

'40 
'35d 



Covin, .Iiidah . . . 
Cowan, Elizabeth. 
Cowan, Isaac . . 



Cowan, Jane . . 
Cowan, William. 
Cowing, Calvin . 

Cox, Benjamin. . 

Cox, Bray 



Mass. line . 



N. H. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 
Cont.navj 



Cox, Hugh. . . . 
Ciafts, Samuel . 
Ciatts, Samuel . 
Ciaig, Elias . . . . 
Craig, Enoch . . 

Craig, Samuel. , 
Cram, John S, . 



Cram, Tristram . 
Crammer, John . 

Crane, Abijah. . . 
Crane, Rufus . . 



Mass. state. 
Mass. mil. . 



Mass. line. . 
Mass. state . 



Mass. mil. 
Mass. line . 



N. H. line. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. mil. 



'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'35d 



'20 
'40 



'35c 

'40 
'35c 
'31a 



'35d 

'35c 

'40 

'35c 

'3.5c 

'3.5c 
'40 
'35c 
•35d 
'35c 

'35d 
'35c 

'35c 
'35c 

'35d 
'40 

'35c 
'40 

•35c 



Ciary, Joseph iMass. line . 

Crawford, Thomas . Mass. line . 



Crawford, William 



Ci earner, John 
Cree, Asa 



Creech, Richaid. .. 
Creesey, Benjamin 



Mass. state. 



Mass. mil, 
Mass. line . 



Cresy, Benjamin. . . (Mass. line. 



Crips, Michael. . 

Ciocker, Benjamin . Mass. line. 

Crockett, Benjamin. 



Ciockett, Ephraim 
Crockett, Samuel. . 



Cronielt, Jeremiah. 

Cromwell, Jo.scph. . 

C'looko', Joshua. . . 

Crooker, Ruih. 

Crosby, Cnarics. . . 

Crosby, Kben 

Crosby, Stephen. . . 



Cross, Caleb. . 
Cioss, Joseph , 



Crossman, Joseph A 
Crowell, Er.och. . . . 

Crowell, Maroah. . . 

Crowell, Michael. . . 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 
Mass. line . 



R. I. line. . 
Mass. mil. 
Mass. line . 



Mass. mil . . 
Mass. line. . 

Cor^t. na\ y. 
Mass. line. . 



Private . 



Private. 
Private . 



Private. 

Seaman . 



P^i^ ate. 
Piivate. 



Pri^ ate. . . 
Pvt. and 
Matioss 
Pri\ ate. . . 
Drummer 

Private. . . 



Pri-i ate. 
Private. 



Pvt . and 

Sergeant 



Private . . 

Pvt. and 
Pvt. ol 
art. 
Mass. line Musician. . 



Pvt. and 
Pvt. of 
art. 

P\t. of art 



Croxfoid, John. 



Mass . mil . . 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Private. 



Private. 



75 



Hancock . , 

Kennebec 

Kennebec 

Kennebec 
Kennebec 
Lincoln. . . 
Lincoln . . . 
Oxford . . . 



York. 



Kennebec. 
York. 

O.xfoid 

Kennebec . 
Kennebec. 

Penobscot. 
York 



Wr.ldo. . . 
Lincoln 

Kennebec 
Lincoln. 
Lincoln . . . 
Waldo , . . 



83!Waldo. 
78 & Lincoln . 
79 



74 Kennebec. 

82 Kennebec 
77| Lincoln . , 

83 Lincoln. . . 



83 



Cumberland 



7S I Cumberland 



Private. . . 
Pri^ ate. . . 



Sergeant 
Private . . 
Private. . 



Lincoln ... 
Penobscot . 



Cumberland. 
Cumberland 
Cumberland 

Lincoln .... 



91 Lincoln. 



Cun 

Ci.ii 



rland 
iland 



Piivate. . 
Private. . 
Private. . 

Private. . 
Musician. 

Marinei . . 
Private. . . 

iFri\a(e. . . 



iPrivate. . , 
Private... 



74 Penobst ot . 
70 Kennebec . 



Kennebec. 
Cumberland 

Cumberland 
Kennebec . . 

Kennetec. 
Kennebec . . . 
Kennebec . . , 
Kennebec . . . 
Penobscot . . . 



14, 



Res. Deei Isle. 
Res. Sidney. 
('20) d. Mar. 3, 

1830. 
Res. Vassalboro'. 
('20). 
('20). 

Res. Lisbon. 
('20) d. Jan. 

1832. 
('20, frigate 

"Dean") d.Jan. 

14, 1821. 



Res. Hebron. 
('20, '31b). 



('20) d. Jan. 3, 

1824. 
('20). 

Res. Waldoboro. 
See also Creamer 
('20, lb). 

Res Warren. 

('31b). 

Res. Jackson. 
("20, '31b). 



Res. Gardiner. 
See also Crammer. 
('20) d. Oct. 30, 
1833. 

Same as Cruch. 

Res Palniouth. 
Same as Cresy, 
B. 

('20 as Cresey) 
Same as Creesey 

Res Bowdoinham. 

('20). 

Rejected as serv- 
ing in reg't not 
on Cont. es- 
tablishment. 

('20). r *' 

Res. Cape Eliza- 
beth. 

('20 as Cromett) 
d. Jan. 1828. 

('20) d. Mav 12, 
1.^31. 

('20). 

Res. Minot. 

('20). 

('20) d. Mnj 5, 
1-830. 

(•20) d. May 2. 

1822. 
d. July 22,-; 1831. 
('20 as Erock) d. 

Apr. 4, 1823. 

Res. Wateiville. 
('20). 

Res. China. 
(,'20) d. Dec. 15 
1820. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS' IN MAINE 125 



List. 


Name. 


Service. 


Rank. 


Age. 


County. 


Remarks. 


'35c 


Cruch, Richard 


Mass. line 


Pri\ate. , . . 


— 


Kennebec . . . 


Same as Cieech,, 
d, June 13,1819. 


1794 




2d. N. H.regt.. 


Private,... 






Wounded on re- 














tieat fiom Ti- 














ccndeioga,Julv 














7, 1777. Res. 














Washington. 


'35d 


Culley, William . . . 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . . 


82 


Cumberland . 


Same as Colley, 
W? 


'35d 


Cummings, Asa. . . . 


Mass. mil. ..... 


Pii\ate. . . . 


73 


Oxford . 


'35d 


Cunimings, Josiah. . 


Mass . mil 


P 1 t. a n d 
Coip. 


vy 


Cumberland. 




'35d 


Cummings, Richard 


Mass. line 


P\t.of art. 


84 


Lincoln. 




'40 









45 


Waldo 


Res. Hope. 


'35c 


Cummings, Thomas 


Mass. line 


Piivate. , . , 


79 


Cumbeiland . 


' V*Mr'-' 


'35e 


Cumings, Thomas . . 


Mass. line 


Lieutenant. 


83 


Cumberland . 


('20) d. Oct. 24, 
1§25. 


'35d 


Cunningham, Sam'l. 


Mass. state .... 


Piivate. . . , 


74 


Lincoln. 


'35c 


Cunningham, Thos. 


N. H. line 


Private . . , , 


vy 


Lincoln 


('20). 


'35d 


Cunningham, Tim- 
othv. 


Mess state.. . . 


P vt. and 
Seaman. 


V9 


Lincoln. 




'35d 


Curriei, Abiaham.. 


Mass. line 


Private, . . . 


75 


Yoik. 




'40 








81 


Yoik 


Res. Kennebunk- 










port. 


'40 


Curtis, Benjamin. . . 






S3 


Waldo 


Res. Monroe; same 














as Cuitiss, B. 


'35c 


Cuitis, Caleb 


Mass. line 


Pri-i ate .... 


75 


Lincoln. 




'40 


Cuitis, Chailes. . . . 






82 
74 


Lincoln .... 
Lincoln 


Res. Topsham. 


'35c 


Mass. line 


Piivate. , . 


('20 as Curtiss) d. 














Aug. 27, 1819. 


'35c 


Cuitis, Joseph. . . . 


Mass. line .... 


Piivate .. 


77 


Yoik 


('20 as Cuitiss) d. 
Dec. 11, 1823. 


'35c 


Cuitiss, Benjamin . , 


Cont.na\ y . , . . 


Marinei . . . 


79 


Waldo 


Same as Cuitis, B. 


'35c 


Cuftiss, David 


Mass. line 


Priv ate .... 


80 


Someiset , . . , 


d. Dec. 1827. 


'35c 


Cuitiss, Stephen . . . 


Mass. line 


Piiv ate. . . , 


V9 


Oxford 


('20). 


'35c 


Cushing, Loiing . . . 


Mass. line 


Piivate. , . . 


68 


Cumbeiland . 


^20) d. Apr. ,1820. 


'35d 


Cushman, Andiew. . 


Mass. line 


Piivate. . . . 


73 


Kennebec , . . 


('20, '31b). Same 
as Cashman? 


'35d 


Cushman, Caleb . . . 


Mass. line 


P V t . a n d 

Seigtant 


83 


Oxfoid 


d. Mar. 16, 1833. 


'35d 


Cushman, Caleb . . . 


Mass. mil. . . . 


F \ t. a n d 
Fifei. 


V8 


Oxfoid. 




'35d 








S3 Oxfoid 




'35d 


Cushman, Isaac. . . . 


Mass. mil .... 


Piivate. . . . 


gCOxfoid. 




'35d 


Cushman, Isaiah . . . 


Mass. line 


Private . , 


74 & Cumbeiland . 
77 
74 Oxfoid. 


('20). 


'35d|Cughman, Isaiah, . . 


Mass. line . . . . 


Piivate 


Same as pieceding 


'40 








84 Oxloid 


Reg. Sumner. 


'31a 






Private , . 






Rejected on ac- 










count ot am't. 














of hi^ piopertj . 


'35d Cushman, John. . . . 


Mass. line 


Piivate, . . 


73 Kennebec . . . 


d. Jan. 27, 1834. 


'35diCushman, Jonathan 


Mass. line 


Sergeant . . 


79 Kennebec. 










79 Oxfoid 

73 Oxloid 

78 Lincoln. 


Res. Norv^ay. 


'40 
'35a 








Res. Oxford. 


Cushman, Sihanus. 


Mass. mil. . . . 


Private 




'35diCushman, William . 


Mass. mil 


Private.. . . 


70 Oxfoid. 










75 Oxford 

71 Oxioid 


Res, Hartford. 


'35c|Cushman, Zebedee 


Cont. navy . . . . 


Manner. . . 


('20, ship "Provi- 












dence. ) 


'40 








89 Oxfoid 


Res. Hebron, same 














as Cushman, G. 



According- to the Maine Register for 1821, the first Savings Bank 
in Maine was known as the " Portkmd Institution for Savings." 
Its first president was Prentiss MeUen, with Mathew^ Cobb, Asa 
Clap, A. R. Parris, Ezekiel Whitman, Stephen Longfellow, Jr. 
James Deering and Levi Cutter for vice-presidents. 



126 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Relating to the War of 1812 

Contributed by Ciiari^Es A. Flagg 

Tlic foUoz^'ing Icttrr was addressed to Honorable John 
Holmes iclio i^'us one of the first tzvo senators that Maine 
elected to the Senate of the United States {1S20-1827) and sub- 
sequently had a seat in the Senate to fill a vacancy {1829-1833) 
caused by the resignation of Albion K. Parris. This letter was 
found in a package of old papers in the office of the clerk of 
courts in .llfred, Maine, and printed in a nezvspaper, probably 
the Bangor Coinniereial about 18(^2. 

Lancaster, Oct. 11, 1814. 
Dear Sir : 

I now devote a few moments, in answer to your several inquiries, relat- 
ing- to the conduct of the British while they remained in Bangor. A plain 
statement of facts must suiifice — language being inadequate to give you but 
an imperfect idea of their outrages. As the enemy approached the Town a 
flag of truce was sent out to the land, as well as naval forces, to ascertain 
upon what terms the Town must capitulate. The answer to each was, uncon- 
ditional submission, public offices and property to be given up, the People of 
the Town to give up their arms and parole themselves, and private property 
should be most sacredly respected, to all of which the Town agreed. But 
they had not been in the .place two hours before they commenced a scene of 
])lunder and liavoc, which the most savage Goth would have shrunk from. 
The principal stores were broken open and stripped of everything. What 
they could not take away they destroyed. 

Dwelling houses were entered, furniture broken, clothing of every 
description stolen, even women's stockings and infant's apparel. The several 
law shops in town broken open, libraries and papers torn up or carried away. 
But one ofifice out of live escaped. The inhabitants not only had to supply 
them with provisions, etc., but they were forced to cook for them — dig 
potatoes and draw water for their soldiers. The vessels, about to sail, 
they took and solemnly agreed to navigate them to Castine, and then let 
the owners ransom them; but before they got out of sight of the town, they 
saw them in flames. They took 20 or 30 of the best horses and agreed to 
return them when they embarked their troops at Hampden, but tliey were 
carried to Castine, and a few only have been recovered — in fact in almost 
every instance, when they pledged their hands as gentlemen and officers they 
violated the pledge and with as much ease as they made it — and in the little 
village of Bangor they destroyed something like $30,000 of private property, 
besides the bond of $30,000 which the Selectmen gave to launch the vessels 
on the stocks and deliver them at Castine. They enforced their demands 
l)y the threat to burn the town — this they made every hour. In addition to 
these outrages upon private property, and the total disregard they paid to 
their most sacred agreements, their personal abuse and indignities were the 
most humiliating — and here let me remark that in dealing out their ven- 



ISAAC ROYAL LETTER 127 



geance upon property and individuals it fell with unsparing hands upon the 
"Friends of Peace." Those who expected protection received the gj^ter 
indignities— the New England spirit was no shield against the "tender mer- 
cies" of Strong's Bulwark. I will give you a few instances of their 
gentlemanly and humanic conduct to their professed friends. Doctor Fiske, a 
respected merchant and Federalist, was horse-whipped out of his carriage 
by commander Barrie because he did not instanter obey his haughty mandate ; 
then put under guard and forced to do drudgeries of the soldiers. 

Capt. Hammond, the Representative of the town, a Federalist, had his 
store broken open, and everything destroyed. Mr. Button, a lawyer, and one 
of John Bull's warmest advocates, had to draw water for the soldiers, wait 
upon them like a negro— he even had to take a wagon, half load some 
drunken sailors into it and draw them down to the wharf. Mr. McGaw, a 
lawyer and the most respected Federalist in Town, was ordered under 
guard and called a liar because he said he did not belong to the militia, and 
in order to get a place of greater safety for his wife he had to leave his 
own house and go to a Tavern and pass the night where some of the offi- 
cers put up. Mr. Hill, a lawyer and Federalist, had his House entered, his 
clothes taken, even his wife's stockings, and when he protested against it, 
was threatened to be run thro'. The Parson (a good, pious soul) who has 
ever refused to pray for the success of our American Arms, did not escape 
their attention— a camping company quartered in his house, burned his wife's 
muff and tippet, and destroyed many of his Books and Papers. I can name 
many more instances in which they protected their professed Friends m 
like manner, but sufficient has been stated to show you that the Federalist 
can expect no more mercy or favor in the contest. Love of country is 
almost the only virtue an Englishman possesses. And they respect that 
spirit wherever they find it. Contrast the outrages they have heaped upon 
these non-combatants, these professed enemies of Madison and this war, 
with that toward Mr. Carr, the member of Congress, who voted for war; 
his house was threatened to be Inirnt, his property destroyed, etc., but the 
old man appeared among them, told them who he was, etc., and they 
respected him so far as not to injure his property one cent and to treat him 
without the least insult. In Hampden their conduct was, if possible, more 
outrageous than in Bangor. It is vain to paliate these outrages by saying 
the soldiers and sailors would not be restrained, and that the officers dis- 
countenanced it, for those who know British discipline know lietter, and as 
these depredations were committed under the eye of the officers and Com. 
Berrie headed the plundering party in Hampden in person, and the com- 
mittee of safety from Bangor, who went to Castine to see Sir John Sher- 
brook, with the expectation of obtaining relief, returned as they went— 
nothing was done. 

I had forgotten to name one other fact which ought to stamp infamy 
on their characters ; at Hampden three or four physicians had taken a house 
as a Hospital in which to dress the wounded if taken there, and a number 
of cases of instruments and medicine, and while dressing the wounds of the 
injured a party of British soldiers entered, drove them out. broke up the 
instruments, wasted the medicine, and robbed the pockets of a Dr. Knapp 



128 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



from Newburyport of four hundred dollars. This is British honor and 
British magnanimity. This good effect has however resulted from their 
conduct; political animosity is merged in love of Country — all are now con- 
vinced that submission will not answer, that manly resistance alone com- 
mands respect. It was the general opinion especially of the Federalist pri- 
vate property would not be injured, and that a perfect surrender to their 
mercy was the only security, but, ah ! fatal delusion. The stage has arrived 
—you shall have by next mail something relating to Gen. Blake's conduct. 
You may make what use you please of the foregoing facts, for they are 
what I know or have heard from those I can rely upon, but I wish you not 
to make use of my nan:e publicly. 

In haste, your Ob't Serv't, 

J. K. Whitney. 



MARTEN STREAM IN OCTOBER 

There is a stream whose beauty has bewitched me — 
A stream whose hiding place is here in Maine, 

I cannot tell you all her charms and graces, 

But "Marten" is this beauteous creature's name. 

Young Maples flash like fire in gold and garnet, 
Poplar and Beech, with yellow banners stand, 

While Pine and Hemlock in their somber vesture 
Approve the scene and cheer the dazzling band. 

As maidens clad in white strew blushing roses 
Before young lovers on their wedding day. 

White Birches with a wealth of golden tresses. 
Make for fair Marten a resplendent way. 

I wonder if, in this great world's creation. 

Marten was born on an October day, 
And if Dame Nature, proud of her fair daughter, 

Marks the event in this most sumptuous way. 

Or, has Dame Nature known my admiration. 

And listened to all I have had to say, 
And cried : "I'll make her queen of brooks and streamlets. 

And tins shall be her coronation day." 

Whatc'cr thy plan or purpose, Mother Nature, 
Thou hast flung out a wealth of color bright. 

To flash and flame, and mark October daylight. 
Before November dusk and December night. 

— Good Will Record. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $i.oo. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

First Teach the Boy and Girl to Know and Love their Own To\vn, 
County and State and You have Gone a Long Way Toward Teaching 
Them to Know and Love Their Country. 



MAINE RESEARCH CLUB STORIES FOR A 
SCHOOL READER 

We have heretofore mentioned in the Journal that the Club 
women of Maine, realizing the fact that Maine historical work is 
being sadly neglected in the schools of our state, have undertaken 
to produce a book in the near future to be used as a school reader. 
Too much praise and encouragement cannot be extended to them 
for this and the Journal is also gratified to know that our present 
State Superintendent of Schools, Dr. A. O. Thomas, is heartily in 
favor of this enterprise and is rendering it all possible aid. 

The people of Maine are to be congratulated upon having a man 
at the head of this department with a vision broad enough to take 
this position. 

That the forthcoming book will be of value and merit is not 
problematical. 

The brilliant writing talent of this club has already produced two 
of the most important and interesting Maine books that have been 
issued in recent years, Maine in History and Romance (1915) and 
The Trail of the Maine Pioneer (1916) hence any literary propo- 
sition eminating from this source is in no sense experimental. 

From the Lewiston Journal we take the following which is the 
latest information regarding this matter: 

In view of the fact that Mrs. E. C. Carll, president of the Maine Writers 
Hesearch club^ deems it wise to omit the Research club's fall meeting, post- 



I30 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



poned because of the epidemic, the coiniiiittee on the proposed historical 
reader for the public schools makes its report in the form of an open letter. 

Below is the list of the club stories chosen by Dr. A. O. Thomas, State 
Superintendent of Schools, as most appropriate for the proposed reader. In 
selecting these stories from the sixty or more submitted Dr. Thomas em- 
phasizes the fact that many of those rejected are admirably written but are 
better suited to older readers and for this reason, are excluded. In many 
cases the same subject was chosen by more than one writer and so excellent 
was each story that Dr. Thomas found it difficult to make a choice. 

Several writers submitted two stories, some as many as four, for each 
club member was invited to submit as many as she would. Dr. Thomas dis- 
regarded entirely the authorship in his choice and in one or two instances 
chose three stories from the same writer and often two from the same pen. 
He chose them for their excellence for the purpose of this volume. 

The articles contributed by writers of acknowledged fame, — Col. Roose- 
velt, Dr. Eliot, Dr. Stephens, Hugh Pendexter, Holman Day, Hon. W. VV. 
Thomas, Thomas Nelson Page, Col. Fred N. Dew, John Clair Minot, and 
others, he believes will add greatly to the value of the book. 

Dr. Thomas in general hnds the club stories admirable. He offers his 
congratulations to the Maine Writers Research club. 

The hnal selection of stories — for this is only a preliminary (.)ne — will 
be made from the group below listed. Many of them must be shortened, 
one or two entirely rewritten as the style is not suited for the children'.^ 
reader. Dr. Thomas thought the manuscript might be ready for next .\pril 
but was not in favor of haste, especially in the war times, now happily turned 
to peace. 

The committee will now undertake the hnal work of shortening and 
otherwise editing the stories in harmony with Dr. Thomas' suggestions. The 
stories will then be sent to the State superintendent for the hnal reading. 

The book committee consists of A. L. Dingley, chairman, Louise Wheel- 
er Bartlett and Jessica J. Haskell. 

The List of Stories Chosen 

The stories selected by Dr. Thomas for the School Reader, follow : 

"Aly Debt to Maine," Col. Roosevelt. 

"When Maine Was Made a State," Clara X. Fogg, Bowdoinham. 

"The State Seal," (contributed). 

"A Soldier Boy of the Revolution Who Whipped the I'uture King of 
England^" Fanny E. Lord, Bangor. 

"Jerry O'Brien," (poem) (contributed). 

"Rebecca Weston," Sprague's Journal. 

"General tloward," Mabel S. ^lerrill, Lewiston. 

"Hannibal Hamlin," Dr. C. A. Stephens. 

"Story of New Sweden," W. W. Thomas (founder of the colony). 

"Elijah Kellogg," Holman F. Day. 

Poem, John Kendrick Bangs. 

"The Voyage of the Archangel," "The Sea Fight bar Away," Charlotte 
H. 11. Beath, Boothbay Harbor. 



EDITORIAL 131 



"Neal Dow," Col. Fred N. Dow. 

"The Returned Battle Flags,." (poem) Moses Owen. 
"Some IMaple Sugar," Hugh Pendexter. 

"A Little Girl of Gorham Town," Estelle Al. Tatterson, Saco. 
"Lovewell's Fight," Eva L. Shorey. 

"The Bloodless Aroostook War," Stella King White, Houlton. 
"Little Christiana's Journey Thru the .Maine Woods in 181 3," Anna 
Barnes, Houlton. 

"Dr. Benj. Vaughn," "The Hero of Little Round-Top," Theda Carey 
Dingley, Auburn. 

"When the King Visited Sanford," "Maine's First Christmas," "The 
Lost City of Xorumbega," Emmie Bailey Whitney, Lewiston. 
"General Knox," Mrs. John O. Widber, Auburn. 

"Governor King," lone B. Fales, Springfield, Mass., (formerly of Lew- 
iston j. 

"Arnold's Trail," Mrs. E. C. Carll, Augusta. 

"The Alarie Antoinette House," "The Ride of Marguerette Knox," Maud 
Gay Clark, Waldoboro. 

"The Boy and the Boat," "The Birth of :\Liine," May Dunbar Devereaux, 
Castine. 

"Samoset," (poem.) Elizabeth Powers Merrill, Skowhegan. 
"A Quaint Letter of Long Ago," (contributed). 

"When Lafayette Came to Portland," Ella Mathews Bangs, Portland. 
"Island Life in the Last Century," Dr. Eliot. 
"Gov. Washburn," Rose D. Nealley, Lewiston. 
"The Story of the River Kennebec," John Francis Sprague. 
"Pilgrim Fathers of. the Kennebec," Louise H. Coburn, Skowhegan. 
"Sir William Pepperell," Beulah Sylvester Oxton, Rockland. 
"Father Rasle," Henrietta Tozier Totman, Oakland. 
"Samuel Waldo," Jessica J. Haskell, Hallowell. 
"The Story of Pemaquid," (retold from Cartland's Pemaquid). 
'The First Thrill of Patriotism or the Story of William Conway," 
"From the Lips of Zilpah," "When Jean Vincent followed the Trail," Louise 
Wheeler Bartlett, Castine. 

"The Treasure Ship," Anna L. Dingley, Auburn. 

A story by John Clair Minot is yet to be chosen from several offered 
for the book. 

All the stories contributed— with the exception of Col. Roosevelt's — are 
written by Maine men or by men who live for at least a part of each year, 
in Maine. 



In 1 791 the District of Maine comprised five counties with popu- 
lations as follows: York. 28,821; Cumberland. 25,450; Lincoln, 
29,962; Hancock, 9.549: Washington. 2.758. 



132 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Notes and Fragments 

111 the last issue of the Journal appeared a list of the officers 
and members of the York County Teachers Institute contributed by 
Henry AI. Packard. 

Inadvertently the words "held at Biddeford, August, 1851'' were 
omitted. 



From an old copy of the New England Gazeteer published in 
Boston in 1839 ^^'^ learn Maine's wheat crop for the year 1839 was 
as follows : 

Cumberland County 71,000 Bushels 

Kennebec County 186,876 

Penobscot County 202,143 " 

Lincoln County 37,963 " 

Hancock County 21,446 " 

Somerset County 239,332 " 

Waldo County 109,140 " 

Washington County 27,014 " 

York County 17.795 " 



Mrs. So})hronia Farrow, the oldest woman in Rockland, died 
Tuesday, Oct. 3, 191 8, at her home froiu the eft'ects of a fall a fort- 
night before, she would have been 98 next Christmas. Miss Farrow 
was born in Islesboro the vear Maine became a state. She made her 
home in the famih- of the late Hon. Francis Cobb after coming to 
I'vock'and. and for many an hour rocked his son W'illiaiu T. Cobb, 
who became one of Maine's best known Governors. She was a 
member of the Congregational church more than 60 years. 



Among the recent contributions to Maine newspapers, one of the 
most im]X)rtant was in the Lewiston Journal Oct. 31. 1918 by Hon- 
orable James Phinney Baxter, ex-Mayor of Portland and a well 
known author and jmblicist on "How Shall Peace Terms Be Made 
With (lermanv." 



NOTES AND FRAGMENTS 133 

For the benefit of our readers fifty or more years from today, 
we append the following items from Maine newspapers. They both 
refer to Monday, November 11, 1918, the day when America and 
the entire world learned for certain that Germany had hnallv made 
an unconditional surrender to the forces of freedom. 

Before such readers may see this we presume that the eleventh 
day of November will have been made an international Thanksgiving 
Day : 

An interesting feature of tfie Victory celebration at Paris Hill, Monday, 
was the firing of the historic musket that was brought over from London in 
1683 by Thomas Parris, the founder of the family in this country^ and has 
been fired every Fourth of July by some of his descendants since 1776. This 
gun was carried in war for American Independence thru six campaigns and 
several battles by Capt. Josiah Parris and has now been fired by his grand- 
son, Hon. Edward L. Parris, in celebration of the great world victory for 
democracy over autocracy. 

Chief Justice Cornish, who marched at the head of the Augusta lawyers 
in the parade Monday evening, said it was the second patriotic parade at 
the close of a war in which he had marched. When on April 9, 1865, the 
message came that Lee had surrendered, the people went wild with joy and 
gratitude, mills, stores and schools were closed and all gave themselves up to 
celebrating the event. Judge Cornish was a boy of ten going to school at the 
old Waterville academy. The people of Waterville made quick plans for a 
parade and all the scholars were a part of the procession. 



Dr. Frederick G. Thayer has given to the Waterville Public Li- 
brary his valuable medical library. The library includes many nota- 
ble features. In medical historv and biography it is probably one 
of the richest in the State, with the possible exception of the iil)rar}- 
of the Maine Aledical school. It has a complete set in bound voltimes 
of the Joitrnal of the ,\merican Medical Association since the or- 
ganization of the association ; also The Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal sin:e 1S67. and the transactions of the Maine Medical 
society since its origin in 1852. These periodicals give descriptive 
records of the advance in surgical and medical practice for the last 
fifty years. The best books on surgery, anatomy, internal medicine, 
obstetrics, etc.. are here with many monographs on special diseases. 
There are manv volumes on ptiblic health, sanitation, water supplv, 
medical supervision of schools which will be of general interest. 
This library will be kept in a special alcove and will be cataloged 
separately, thus becoming readily available. The Waterville I'ub'ic 
librarv now houses two special libraries, that of the Historical Soci- 
etv. nnd the Medica' Librarv. 



134 S PRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Sayings of Subscribers 

Mrs. Elizabeth K. Folsoni, Exeter, N. H. : 

"I glory ill your determined effort to instill into the minds of Maine 
people the value of Maine History. 

The Journal's motto 'First teach the boy and girl to know and love 
their own town, county and state and you have gone a long way towards 
teaching them to know and love their country' should be hung on every 
school-room wall." 



LeRoy K. Knight, Lawyer, Augusta, Maine : 

"The work you are doing is worth doing and you are doing it well. 
These words are not perfunctorily said, but I use them with full sense of 
their meaning :.nd with deep sincerity." 



Hon. Arthur Chapin. Bangor, Me. : 

"Your Journal is a valuable historical work. The sketch of the early 
cays of Bangor in the last issue was worth much more than the price of the 
entire volume." 



Mrs. C. B. Porter. I'rominent in Maine D. A. R., Old Town: 

We know all too little of the history of those who built so well for 
us and you're doing great work to remind us of them. Mr. Flagg's Index 
of Revolutionary Pensioners is of great value. 



Hon. George C. Wing, Auburn, Maine : 

Whether it is solely on account of the attractive manner in which the 
articles in your magazine are written or whether it is because as I grow 
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SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIBERS 135 



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136 SI'KACUE'S JOURNAL OF A1AINI<: HiSTORV 



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CONTENTS 



137 



MAINE INLAND SCENERY 




Moosehead Lake, Maine 

Contributed by Hon. Leroy T. Carleton. 



CONTENTS 



PACE 

Shaker Communities in Maine 139 

Aroostook War V^okrnteers 147 

Alphabetical Index of Revolutioiiary Soldiers in Maine. ... 153 

Salmon. Shad and Alewive Fisheries in Olden Days 158 

Revolutionary Graves. ^Madison and vicinity 161 

Oxford County Gleanings 162 

Augusta Social Event of 1854 166 

Browsings in the Editor's Library 167 

Sayings of Subscribers 173 

Notes and Fragments 176 

State Aid for Maine Historical Publications 179 



52 



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Oh 



H-1 



Sprague's Journal of Maine History 

Vol. VI FEB^AR. ARRIL 1919 No. 4 

Shaker Communities of Maine 

By Charles E. Waterman 

Having lived in the vicinity of the Shaker Communities of 
Poland a^'nd New Gloucester for the greater part of my life, and, 
having become interested, at an early age, in their singular religious 
services, it cannot but be considered natural I should become curious 
about their origin. . ^ 

The official name of this sect is The United Believers m Christ s 
Second Appearing, the name Shakers having been applied to them 
in derision because of the rhythmic movement of hands and arms 
in parts of the ceremonial of their worship ; but, like many another 
society, they accepted this term of aspersion and have made it one 

of respect. 

Although Shakerism is a strictly American religious sect, it had 

its origin in England. 

Ann Lee. the daughter of an English blacksmith, is generally 
considered the founder. She was born February 29. 1736, in Man- 
chester, and lived in the unromantic sounding thoroughfare of Toad 
Lane. She is not given a pleasant disposition as a young woman, 
having possessed a vio^.ent temper, strong will and a desire for 
power intensified by hysteria. 

But Ann Lee did not originate the religion credited to her. There 
was a female John the Baptist in her case. It seems that during 
Ann Lee's girlhood there was a woman living at Bolton-on-the- 
Moors, in Lancashire. Jane Wardlaw by name, the wife of a tailor, 
■who believed she had "received a call" to go forth and testify for 
the truth." The burden of her message was that the end of all 
things was at hand and that Christ was about to reappear taking 
the form of a woman as prefigured in Psalms. Jane Wardlaw and 
her husband belonged to the Society of Friends and that accounts 
for the similarity of some of the Shaker tenants with that faith. 



2 



I40 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Ann Lee became a convert to Jane Wardlaw's belief. She went 
farther than her forerunner and proclaimed herself the reincar- 
nated Christ, as preached by Jane Wardlaw. 

She began to preach immediately in the streets of Manchester, 
and, like many another soap-box preacher, came in contact with the 
constituted authorities for obstructing the streets. She was sent to 
Old Bailey Prison in Manchester. While in prison, she is said to 
have received a vision directing her to proceed to America and lay 
the foundation of Christ's Kingdom as represented by herself. 

On recovering her liberty she, with seven converts, five males and 
two females, set sail for New York. This was in 1775. 

Like other religious sects. Shaker tenants grew and multiplied. 
Environment and circumstance seem to have as much to do with 
forming religious as secular organizations. Although the Shaker 
leader has always been known as Ann Lee, yet in early life she 
married a blacksmith, Abraham Stanley, and had four children, 
all of whom died in childhood. He came to America with her, but 
appeared to have no faith in her religion, and soon left her. It was 
then that celibacy was introduced into her religion. Her teaching 
was that man called into grace must live as the angels who neither 
marry nor are given in marriage. 

Finding New York City unfavorable to her designs, she moved 
first to Albany and a little later into the wilderness to a place called 
Niskenna, now known as Watervliet, and founded a settlement. It 
was in the spring of 1780 that the first American converts joined 
the society. A revival had been in progress in the region south of 
Niskenna and several converts gained. Chief among them were 
Joseph Meacham and Lucy \^■right. These followers established 
a community at New Lebanon. 

About this time Ann Lee and her religion received considerable 
gratuitous advertising through a seemingly unfavorable incident 
Owing to Quaker antecedents. Shakers were strong peace advocates. 
They denounced the Revolutionary \\'ar, then in progress, refused 
to do military service or take colonial oaths. These things, together 
with the P>ritish origin of .\nn Lee and her principal followers, cast 
susj)icion upon her and she was thrown into prison at Poughkeepsie 
as a P>ritish spy. Before she was given her liberty, everybody in that 
vicinity had heard of the female Christ and she gained a number of 
adherents. These adherents were quite Andely scattered over the 
country, special'y over New England, because of the manv soldiers 



SHAKER COMMUXITIES OF AEAIXE 141 



from this locality stationed in the Hudson valley. The germs of 
Shakerism were thus carried to many remote hamlets. 

In 1781, because of this wide scattering of followers, Ann Lee 
undertook her tir^t and only missionary journey through the New 
England states and some of the British provinces. She was accom- 
panied by William Lee, her brother ; James Whittaker, chief exhort- 
er; John Farrington, a Baptist elder; James Shepard, Samuel Fitch, 
Mary Partington, Margaret Leland, Ebenezer Cooley, James Jewett 
and perhaps others. She did not return to Watervliet until Septem- 
ber, i/S^. As a result of this journey quite a number of converts 
were secured in a number of remotely separated places and a nu- 
cleus made in some of them for societies. It is not certain that Ann 
Lee took in what is now the state of Maine in this journev, althousfh 




"^..j* 




Shaker Church at left and Central House at right. Poland, Maine 

she came near her borders on the New Hampshire side, and it seems 
certain she had sympathizers in some of the interior plantations. 
Whether she visited the District of Maine or not, the communities 
formed here were the result of this journey. 

Her trip was not a progression strewn with flowers. While she 
had sympathizers in a number of places, she met opposition and 
experienced violence in some quarters. 

In Harvard, Massachusetts, for example, the town voted to 
prosecute them and chose a committee to act in the matter. As a 
result Ann Lee and her followers were driven out of town bv the 
militia. They returned later and were driven out bv a mob. After 
a time they were allowed to settle on property owned bv some of 
the members and form a communitv. 



142 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



While Mother Ann was eloquent and persuasive in speech, some 
of the actions of her followers, as described by eyewitnesses, were 
grotesque and sometimes indecent, creating opposition. Thatcher, 
in his Military Journal, says: 

They pretend to be a religious sect, but are a disgrace to 
religion and to human nature. They are called Shaking Quak- 
ers, or Dancing Quakers; but have no affinity in principle or 
character to the established order of Quakers. Their leader is a 
woman, Ann Lee, niece of Gen. Lee in our army. She is called 
"Mother Ann", and pretends to have received revelations from 
heaven. The method they practice, under the idea of religious 
worship, is so obviously impious as to exceed the bounds of 
credibility. A spectator asserts that the fantastic contortions 
of bodjr in which these pretended religious exercises consist bear 
a semblance to supernatural impulse, and the extraordinary con- 
duct of these infatuated people is a burlesque on all moral and 
religious principles. 

In 1784. Mother Ann died. On her death bed, she made over 
'the headship of the society to Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright. 
(Some authorities claim John WHiitaker was chief elder for three 
years after the death of Mother Ann ; also, it might be mentioned, 
that dates of Mother Ann's death and her missionary journey vary 
with different authorities.) They expanded the aims of the society. 
It was under them that community of goods was introduced. 

The death of Mother Ann was a shock and surprise to many of 
her followers. It had been thought she could not die, but the new 
heads explained to them, she was not dead, only withdrawn from 
common sight. She was yet visable to eyes exalted by grace, and 
so it would be with every saint who passed out of sight. They would 
remain near and be in union with the visible body of believers. 

The beginnings of Shakerism in ]\Iaine were all made during 
Mother Ann's missionary tour or shortly after it. The first begin- 
ning, in point of time, was made in Gorham. This is claimed by 
■Hugh D. McLellan in his history of the town, to have been in about 
the year 1780. 

The missionary in this case was Henry Clough. He was accom- 
panied by a female Shaker whose name has not come down in his- 
tory to the present day. They came from Loudon, New Hampshire. 
The couple stopped with the family of Samuel Brown, and the first 
convert to the new faith was Barbara, wife of Sanmel Brown. 
These missionaries were successful and organized quite a large 
family. They did not seem to have created as much sensation in 



SHAKER COMMUNITIES OF MAINE 143 



Gorham as in some other places. This may have been due to actions 
of returned Revolutionary soldiers who had come home with new 
ideas about religion, gained, perhaps, from Mother Ann and her 
followers. These men with their female friends would become 
'greatly excited during exhortation, would stamp, shout, froth at the 
mouth, and whirl around until they would fall to the ground in 
exhaustion. These people were called "New Lighters.'' It was 
during this reign of religious frenzy that the Shaker missionaries 
•appeared and they gathered in most of the "New Lighters." 

In about the year 1781 or 1782, according to Doctor Usher Par- 
son's Centennial Address of the Town of Alfred, two irii'eranr 
pewter spoon makers from the state of New York, named Ebenezer 
Cooley and James Jewett, came to that part of Sanford whicbi is now 
^Alfred, plying their trade and preaching Shakerisni. They claimed 
to belong to Ann Lee's missionary party. It is probable they came 
to Sanford because there were those living there who were favorable 
'to their sect. Tradition has it that Peter and Simeon Coffin, two 
of the three brothers, original settlers of what is now the town of 
Alfred, felt favorably inclined toward the doctrine. 

Converts were soon gained, a'though the cult was not considered 
desirable or even moral by many of their neighbors. They were 
tailed in derision "Merry Dancers." 

The original converts in Alfred were Valentine Storer, Ebenezer 
Buzzell, Thomas Buzzell, Charles Sargent, John Cotton, Daniel 
Hibbard, and Benjamin Barnes, with their families. In 1793 the 
■society was organized under the administration of John Barnes and 
■Sarah Kendall. They founded a village on Shaker Hill near Massa- 
<basic Pond. Originally they owned about one thousand acres of 
land, but afterwards about eight hundred acres were exchanged 
for lands in Michigan. 

In November, 1783, Elisha Pote, Nathan Freeman and Enoch 
Waite came to Poland from the community at Gorham in the 
interest of Shakerism. Tradition has it these men were gifted 
speakers and singers. They soon gained a number of adherents. 
There is a tradition that missionaries from the New Lebanon com- 
munity in New York, members of Mother Ann's partv preceded 
these men and that they visited Buckfield where they made prose- 
'lytes. Anyway, converts from that town joined the brothers and 
'sisters in Poland and formed a comnninity on what was then known 
as Shaker Hill, later Ricker Hill. This community did not live long. 
In 1793 they exchanged some of their land with Jabez Ricker for 



144 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

land in Alfred adjoining the community there. By this exchange 
the present great spa of Poland Spring became possible. 

Not all of the members of this new religion on Shaker Hill, how- 
ever, moved to Alfred. One or two remained. One of these, Wil- 
liam Allen by name, exchanged his land for other land near Sab- 
bathday Lake in New Gloucester in the year 1793. Through his 
influence, in this very year, a Shaker revival took place in his new 
neighborhood, and was so successful that a family was established 
in it the next year, w^hich prospered and has remained until the 
present time. They secured about one thousand acres of land. 

It might be mentioned here, that the families being of common 
origin retained an interest in each other. Thev scarcelv became 




View of Shaker Village, Poland, Maine 

organized when the desire seized them to make a pilgrimage to Nis- 
kenna, the home of Mother Ann. Members from the communities 
of Gorham, Alfred and Poland hired a schooner (the Shark) of 
Captain Greenfield Pote, of Portland and made the pilgrimage in 
the fall of 1784, shortly before the death of Mother Ann. She 
declared she had been made aware of their coming by a vision; 

For some reason, the community at Gorham did not prosper. In 
1819 they sold their land in that town. Some of the members went 
to the comnumity at Alfred, others came to Poland, buving land on 
the southern slope of Ricker Hill, where thev founded a new com- 



SHAKER GO'MiMUNlTIES OF MAINE 145 



munity, with Samuel Pote as elder. They prospered for a time, 
accumulating a property assessed for $30,000 ; but in the course of 
si?dty years the family had dwindled to such an extent that they 
sold their estate. Some of the members migrated to Alfred, while 
others joined he neighboring connnunity at Sabbathday Lake. It 
will thus be seen that the original four communities have dwindled 
to two. 

During the years of community organization the declaration of 
faith was being systematized by Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright, 
successors to Mother Ann. In brief their covenant is : — 

That the Kingdom of Heaven has come and the personal rule of God is 
restored : that Christ has reappeared in the person of Ann Lee : that 
the old dispensation is ended and a new one begun : that Adam's sin has 
been atoned, and man has been freed of all error except his own : that 
the curse has been taken from labor : that believers going into grace die 
to the world and enter a new life which is heaven, where there is no mar- 
riage, and death but transfiguration. 

Believing such a theology, the life they lead is made possible. 
Being dead to the world they can have no interest in personal 
property, neither in dress. There being no sexual intercourse, 
family life is universal, hence the commimity. 

They live largely from the soil, their farms and gardens being 
noted for their beauty and productivity. Having neither husband, 
wife or child, the afifection naturally destowed on these is lavished 
on plant and animal. The curse of labor being removed it has be- 
come a priestly duty. Living a community life they depend upon 
themselves ; therefore in addition to agriculture they manufacture 
the products of the soil and forest into useful articles. If there is 
a surplus, it is sold to the world or exchanged for things not raised 
or produced. Shakers have been so true to their religious principles, 
so industrous and so moral that the prejudice against them has dis- 
appeared and they are respected even if set apart from the rest of 
the world. 

Being dead to the world and spirits, they antedated Mrs. Marv 
Baker Eddy in banishing the doctor and administering no drugs. 
The health of Shakers has been proverbial. 

Joseph Meacham died in 1796, when Lucy Wright became sole 
head, governing the united societies for twcntv-five vears. 

Shakerism gained great impetus during the c'osing vears of the 
Revolution, and its prosperity continued for about a centiu-y. Since 
then they have declined. In 1870. when at tlie hioht of prosperitv 



146 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



the united communities numbered about 9,000 souls, including 
eighteen comnumities, three of which were located in New York, 
four in Massachusetts, two in New Hampshire, two in Maine, one 
in Connecticut, four in Ohio and two in Kentucky. 

Hie two comnumities in Maine have shared in the prosperity and 
decline of the United Communities. There being no children born 
in the communities, adoptions were the rule for continuance and 
increase. Any one was free to enter the comnumities as a proba- 
tioner and as free to depart. H one became a covenanter, he cast 
his property and lot within the community. For a time adoptions 
and probationers kept up the membership, but of late their numbers 
have fallen off. 

Their quaintness of appearance through singularity of dress, 
their simplicity of life, and the rhythmic motion of their religious 
ceremonies have attracted attention to Shakers in every conununity 
in w'hich they reside ; and this attraction has found voice in some, 
of the best literature of the land. To say nothing of professional 
"Shakers and Shakerism,'' issued in 1884 bv Giles B. Averv, v.'e 
have that classic by William Dean Howels, "The Undiscovered 
Country'' ; also the humerous side of Shaker life as seen by Charles 
Farrar Brown, better known as Artemus Ward, who worked sev- 
eral years on a newspaper in Norway, a village only a few miles 
distant from Poland, and, who, no doubt visited the community 
then. One of the best of Nathaniel Hawthorne's Twice Told Tales 
is the .Shaker Bridal, no doubt suggested by the Poland and Sab- 
bathday Lake comnumities. for this literary genius, during his bov- 
hood, lived in Ravmond onlv a few miles distant from them. 



By the Honorable Major General Knox Commanding- tlie 
American Forces on Hudson River. 

These may certify, that Philip Bohon, Soldier in the Third Arassacluisetts 
Regiment l)einw enlisted for three years, is hereby honin-abjy discliarsed from 
the Service of the United States. 

Given in the State of Xew York tliis twenty 
third day of December 1783 
(Signed) H. KNOX M. GEN. 

(From Doruments relating to claims of Ki volutioiiary Soldiers to boiuity I, nils in ^rainp, 
in the Land Office at Augusta.) 



AROOSTOOK WAR \OLUNTEERS 



147 



Aroostook War Volunteers 

A part of the soldiers in the Aroostook War were drafted by 
Governor Fairfield from the State Militia. There were, however, 
others who were volunteers, mostly from the counties of Penob- 
scot, Kennebec, Oxford, Somerset and Piscataquis. These volun- 
teers were paid off by the Land Agent. The only record of them 
was the pay rolls which were formerly preserved in the Land Of- 
fice. The late Major Charles J. House in 1904 published a roster 
of the ofBcers and privates in the drafted contingent. Some ten 
years ago it was discovered that these pay rolls were lost. Major 
House and others made careful search in the State House to dis- 
cover them, but without avail. Recently the writer was engaged in 
examining some papers in the Land Ofitice, relating to the Revolu- 
tionary soldiers who received land bounties in Maine, and acci- 
dentally came across a box that contained reports of the captains 
of some of these Aroostook War volunteer companies. We have 
caused copies of these valuable documents to be made as follows: 



The following contains a list of names of men who served as 
volunteers in Capt. Nymphas Turner's company under the Land 
Agent in the State of Maine on the Aroostook and vicinity, together 
with the time of service of each man and the amount due him from 
the State at $18.00 per month, from the 24th day of April. 1839, 
to the time thev left the service of the State: 



Hiram Decker 
Benjamin Stinchhelcl 
Ensign Stinchfield 
Grafton N. Frost 
Joseph P. Hill 
Jeremiah Boobar 
Ezekiel Knowles 
Jesse Livermore 
James Currier 
Sedate B. Mejervy 



y allies 

Joseph Going 
Joseph Jaqueth 
William H. Rankin 
Chandler Hall 
Abner Heath 
A. G. Johnson 
Joseph Freeman 
Charles Jaqueth 
Amme S. Carver 
Henrv K. Palmer 



Names 

Greenleaf Smith 
Daniel Stinchfield 
Abel S. Boobar 
Isley Osborn 
J. F. Lindsey 
Thomas Eaton 
Sharon Cross 
Robert Douglass 
William Stinchfield 



148 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Report of Capt. Douty's company, February 24, 1839. 



N nines 

Thomas H. Stubbs 
Elias Courser 
William K. Steadman 
Calvin Coulton 
Charles M. Merrill 
Anthony Bessy 
Alonzo C Hearsay 
Nath'l S. Staples 
Moses Badger 



A^ames 

Jacob Burrill 
Alanson Roberts 
lliomas J. Mason 
Richard Fox 
Edward Fox 
Daniel Labree 
Abraham D. Young 
Jonathan Carter 
Alvin Phdps 



A'anies 

Charles Robinson 
William Hussey 
James W. W. Howe 
Benjamin Hathorn 
Isaac Monroe 
John Hobin 
Samuel T. Nickerson 
Elijah Earl 
Ebenezer Lord 



Report of Capt. Thomas Emery's company, February 25, 1839. 



Names 

Thomas Emery 
Sylvanus M. Corison 
Wm. S. Booker 
Robert Moore 
Wm. G. Lowe 
Eben Edgerley 
Cyrus Adams 
John T. Bragdon 
Edward Doane 
Levi Baker 
John Clark 
Oliver Goss 



N allies 

John Cary 
Samuel Cary 
Henry Snow 
Benj. Adams 
Nathan Hotton 
J. C. Wing 
Joseph C. Wade 
Lewis Young 
Benjamin H. Young 
Ezekiel Morse 
Gilbert Young 



Nantes 

Isaac Kuowles 
Lendall Myreck 
Amos Morrill 
Danid Lowe 
Philip Randall 
Benjamin Marsh 
Ephraim Quinn 
Almon E. Osgood 
Simon Mudgett 
Albion P. Wilson 
Jonathan Powers 



Capt. Thompson's report of his company, Feb'y 25th, '39. 



Names 

Henry VV. Cunningham 
Daniel Billings 
Caleb O. Billings 
William S. Dyer 
Marias Stevens 
Orlando Roberts 
Charles Pray, Jr. 
Edward Stevens 



Names 

John Bachelder 
Nathan Mathews 
Albert Smart 
George H. Cables 
Henry W. Curtis 
James Conary 
Thomas Knowlton 
Leander Mathews 



N^ allies 

Thomas Record 
Chase Colcut 
Dan'l J. Fames 
Oliver Jackson 
James Mussure 
Wm. Young 
Wm. Black 
Cvrus Clark 



AROOSTOOK WAR VOLUNTEERS 



149 



Names 

Geo. Patterson 
Jas. Batchelder 
David Houston 
Jacob B. Mussure 
Amaziah Curtis 
Phinneas Curtis 
Moses Curtis 
John C. Woodman 
Lorenzo Grant 
Phil'brook Abbot 
Smith B. Freemen 
Henry B. Smith 
Moses Grant 
Warren Weston 
Geo. Trafton 
David Beals 
Geo. Parker 
Wm. H. Knowlton 
Wm. Murch 



Names 

Benj. Eames 
John W. Knowlton 
Aaron Knowlton 
Arch. Sanborn 
Saml. Thompson 
Luther Joslin 
Elisha Grant 
Geo. Thombs 
Elijah Low 
Francis Worth 
David Low 
Bisley Low 
Edward Bemis 
Levi Douglass 
Josiali Davis 
Jesse Black 
John Somes 
Orin Nelson 



Names 

Hasen B. Ndson 
Sam'l Watters 
Sam'l Spiller 
Sam'l Linnells 
Gilbert Brown 
Pilsbury Bailey 
Geo. Watters 
Dan'l Rowe 
Wm. Thompson 
Wm. Knowlton 
Jonathan Nickerson 
Joseph Bolton 
Lemuel Curtis 
John Mills 
Joshua Smart 
Alfred Smith 
Joseph Davis 
Gardner Black 



Report of Capt. Porter's Company. Feb. 24, '39. 
Names Names Names 



Capt. J. Porter 
Soloman Ham 
James H. Emery 
Hamilton Colcord 
Daniel Lord 
Luther Scott 
Addison P. Shirly 
Noah Traf*:on 
John A. Smith 
Melvin Curtis 
David L. Buzzell 



Benjamin Drew 
Oliver Lane 
Charles Cochrane 
John L. Morgan 
Charles Ellis 
Levi Applebee 
Jeremiah Folsom 
Samuel Webb 
Tobias Wilbur 
Darius Hodgdon 



Jonathan Fogg 
Woodbury Gordon 
John Page 
Richard Fox 
Dean Page 
Jeremiah Page 
Samuel Morey 
Alfred Miller 
Jonathan Page 
William Allen 



Report of Capt. 
Naines 



Capt. 

Lieut. Cross 
G. W. Wingate 
Gilman Quimby 
Joseph Morrill 



Company, Feb'y 24, '39. 

Names Names 



Thomas Joy 
Horace S. Parlin 
Charles McLuer 
Orrin Cross 
Leonard Delaitre 



M. D. Delaitre 
Jeremiah Cross 
Charles F. Hollan 
Charles White 



I50 SPRAGUE^S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



The following note appears upon this report : 

Headquarters Aroostook, 

Feb. 24th, 1839. 

Capt. will please make out this report and have ready 

for examination by the commander. Col. Jarvis. Feb. 24th. 1839. 

Per order 

B. WIGGIN, JR. 

Aid. 



Report of Capt. Dunning's Company, Feb'y 24th. 1839. 
Names Names Names 



Capt. C. T. Dunning 
Lieut. J. Page 
D. C. Brown, Ensign 
Amasa Holden 
Samuel W. Drew 
Wm. B. Merrill 
Smith Dority 
J. H. Milliken 
Sherburn Tilton 



Jason Shurbern 
Wm. Dolliff 
Calvin Millet 
Philip Snow 
Samuel V. Millet 
Jeremiah Bean 
Holmes D. Coy 
Isaiah H. Hunting 
Simon Stone 



Ebenezer P. Tapley 
John D. Coy 
Wm. Keezer 
Amos T. Either 
Hazen Tilton 
Duston Page 
Adrial Gray 
Brien W. Libby 



Report of Capt. Towle's Company, Feb'y 24th, 1839. 
Names Names Names 



Capt. Towle 
Lieut. Chase 
Lieut. Heald 
Jonathan Annis 
Samuel Bailey 
G. W. Buzzell 
Philip Blake 
D. P. Chase 
S. S. Chase 
P. M. Chase 
W. M. Campbdll 
Job Carpenter 
B. B. Crandlemire 
Albion Carpenter 
Joe Carpenter, Jr. 
A. A. Tolman 



Wm. Cunningham 
Aldin Dole 
Gideon Dearing 
Albert Dilano 
Joshua Dow 
Joe Elkins 
Mark Ellis 
Andrew M. Eaton 
Joseph Fox 
J. C. Grant 
Solon Gates 
Joe P. Guptil 
A, F. Hammond 
Joseph Harding 
Joe Hook 



David Harvey 
Geo. E. Inman 
Joe M. Jewell 
Oliver H. Jewell 
Charles Jordan 
Isaac McKenney 
Isaac Leach 
Moses M. Lane 
Leander G. Merrill 
Isaac Mallett 
Wm. Mallett 
John Mallett 
Levi Moore 
Benj. Norton 
George Pishon 



AROOSTOOK WAR VOLUNTEBRjS 



151 



Hastings Strickland, Esq. 



Mil ford, Feb'y 19th, 1839. 



Sir: 

The Kenebeck State volunteers commanaed by Capt. John Ford 
arrived here at half past four P. M. and Encamped at the Hotel 
kept by Charles Bailey in Milford. 

Annexed is a true and correct list of Officers and Members : 

John Ford, Capt. 

The following officers were appointed by the Capt. 
Names Names Names 



Abner True. Lieut. 

Ensign 
Wallace McKenney. 

Sergeants 
Wm. Garrison 
George Bennett 
Franklin Foster 
Nathan Moore 

Corporals 
Daniel Bennett 
Daniel L Littlefield 
Levi Dunham 
George W. Snow 

Darius Place 
Jessy Weeks 
Calvin Honey 
Wm. Tarbell 
Samueil Judkins 
Wm. Dav 



James Savage 
Hiram Marriner 
John Bolton 
Charles Browning 
T. E. Church 
Wellington Church 
Russell B. Campbell 
Wm. Smith 
Wm. Kennedy 
Wm. K. Bolton 
James B. Perkins 
Isaiah Emery 
Winthrop Cottle 
Daniel S. Larrabee 
Frederick Pishon 
Charles Hill 
Daniel Chadwick 
Wm. W. Orrak 
Horace Smith 
Wm. H Grossman 



Clark Smith 
Charles Stilkey 
Henry M. Blount 
Samuel Hutchins 
J. D. Garrison 
T. A. Springer, Jr. 
Samuel Cunningham 
Edward Peters 
John Leman 
Alonzo D. Crawford 
Daniel Kenney 
Francis O. Becket 
Ichabod Gray 
Samuel Sherburn 
Wm. Collemy 
Benj. Britt 
Francis Nichols 
John Lord 
Wm. H. Smith 
John Hurd 



HENRY GREEN, Clerk. 



A copy of Charles Bailey's Bill 
122 Meals at 1/6 
61 Lodgings 
6 Horse keeping 1/6 
3 Bushels Garin 5/ 
A true copy. 



$30.50 

5-31 
1.50 
2.50 

HENRY GREEN, Clerk. 



152 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Report of Capt. Chamberlain's Company Feb'y 24, '39. 
Names Names Names 



Capt. Chamberlain 
Lieut. S. A. Burr 
W. A. G. Johnson 
Jesse Dyer, Jr. 
Amos Fish 
G. E. Collins 
W. C. Sibley 
E. G. Stackpole 
I. D French 



Aaron French 
Wm. Longley 
N. L. Hooper 
Francis Bunker 
R. S. Cousins 
Geo. Brown 
Sylvester Gray 
A. S. Phillips 
Wm. Robinson 



Stephen Hopkinson 
Richard Beedle 
Daniel S. Ham 
Moses Roberts 
J. C. Camber 
Harry Reed 
W. A. Rowe 
Geo. B. Breton 
Harry W. Littb 



THERE ARE NO BROOKS. 

There are no brooks in city streets, 
There are no brooks that babble by — 
Only dry gulches, narrow, high. 
Into whose deepest crevice beats 
The searching summer of the sky. 

The lure is not the lure of grass 
That brings the weary pilgrim here; 
The dirty pavements breathing gas, 
The treeless plots and alleys drear 
Call not the mortal and the mass. 

It is the gilded call of gold 
That calls us far from better things. 
That calls us from the paths of old, 
The red of rose, the whir of wings — 
For this the very soul is sold. 

My boy, when your own heart repeats 
That call, and yearns, and almost yields. 
Remember, while with joy it beats 
In gazing o'er your father's fields, 
There are no brooks in citv streets. 



— Douglas Mallocli, in the American Lunibennan. 



REVOLUTIONARY PENSIONERS IN MAINE 153 



An Alphabetical Index of Revolu- 
tionary Pensioners Living 
in Maine 

(Compiled by Charles A. Flagg, Librarian Bangor CMatne) 

Public Library.) 

(Continued from page 125, Vol. 6.) 



List. 


Name. 


Service. 


Rank. 


Age 


County. 


Reniaiks. 


'35c 


Dacy, John 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


75 


Cumberland . 


('20)d. July 4,1830 


'40 








94 




Res. Poland. 
('20), ('29 & '31 b. 


'35c 


Daggett, "Tristram. . 


Mass. line 


Private .... 


76 


Somerset. . . . 














Tristam.) 


'35e 


Daggett, Tristram. . 


Mass. hne, 7th 
























'40 








80 




Res. Industry. 


'35d 


Dailly, Nezer 


Mass. mil 


Private .... 


72 


Washington. 


^35d 


Dain, John 


Mass. line 


Sergeant . . 


81 


Lincoln 


('20). 


'35c 


Dakin, Thomas. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


71 


Washington . 


('20) d. Jan. £9, 
1828. 


'40 








85 




Res Starks See 














also Delano. 


•35c 


Dalliver, Peter 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


73 


Hancock .... 


d. Apr. 4, 1828, 
Same as Dolliver? 


•35d 


Damans, Abiah. . . . 


Mass. state. . . . 


Pvt. of art. 


73 


Was'iington. 


See also Demons. 


'35d 


Dame, Jonathan . . . 


Mass. mil 


Pvt.&Coip. 


83 


York. 




'35c 


Dana, Luther 


Cont. navy. . . . 


Midsh'p'n. 


09 


Cumberland . 


d. Feb. 19, 1832. 


'35c 


Danforth, Abner. . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


74 


Lincoln 


('20). 


'40 








75 




Res Litchfield 


'35d 


Davenport, Ephraini 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


72 


Oxford. 




'35d 


Davenport, Thomas 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


70 


Kennebec . . . 




'35c 


Davidson, Alexander 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


SO 


Lincoln 


('20). 


'35d 


Davis, Aaron 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


74 


Oxford 


('31b.) 


'35d 


Davis, Aaron 


Mass. line 


Private 


72 


Lincoln. 




'40 


Davis, Aaron 






79 






'35d 


Davis, Allen 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


78 


Cumberland 


(•20). 


'35c 


Davis, Benjamin . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 




Waldo 


Transf. from Es- 
sex Co., Mass., 
Ma-. 4, 1826. 


'35d 


Davis, Cyrus 


Mass. mil 


Pvt. & Serg 


83 


Waldo. 




'35d 


Davis, David 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


75 


Somerset. 




'20 


Davis, Ezra 


R. I 


Private 








'35c 


Davis, Ezra 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


71 


Kennebec . . 


d. Sept. 9, 1826. 


'40 


Davis, Gashum. . . . 






81 


Oxford 


Res. Buckfield. 














Same as following? 


'35d 


Davis, G?ra'-am 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


75 


Oxford. 




'35c 


Davis, Isaac 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


77 


Cumberland . 


('20). 


'40 








8'' 






'35d 


Davis, Jesse 


N. H.line 


Private. . . . 


70 


Hancock. 




'20 


Davis, John 


R. I 


Private. . . . 








'35d 


Davis, John 


/ Mass. line . . 


Private. . . . 












\ l\'ias^ mil . . 


Drummer. . 


78 


Kennebec . . . 


('20). 


'35c 


Davis, John. ....... 


Mass. line 


INIusician . . 


78 


Washington. . 




'35c 


Davis, Joshua 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


76 


Oxford 


('20). 


'40 








81 


Oxford 




'35d 


Davis, Josiah 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


84 


York. 




'40 








90 

S3 


York 

Lincoln 




'35c 


Davis, Michael 


Mass. line 


Private 


('20) d. Feb. 11, 














182". 


'35c 


Davis, Michael 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


74 


Kennebec . . . 


("20 as Micah) d. 
Jan. 7, 1822. 


'20 


Davis, Moses 


N. H 


Private. 








'35c 


Davis, Moses 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


61 


Kennebec . . . 


d. Mar. 6, 1822. 


'35c 


Davis, Nicholas. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


79 


York 


('20) d. Jan. 14, 
1832. 



154 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



List. 


Namr. 


Service. 


Rar,k. 


Age. 


County. 


Remarks. 


'35d 


Davis, Philip 


Mass. line 


Pvt. &Pvt. 














of art . . . 


76 


Kennebec . . 


('20). 


'40 








W 


Kennebec. 


Res. Fayette. 


'35d 


Davis, Robert 


Mass. «tate. . . . 


Private. . . . 


74 


York. 


'35c 


Davis, Samuel 


N. H. line 


Lieut ;'nar:' 


83 


Kennebec . . 


(•20), ('28) ('31b) 
d. Mar. 6, 1826. 


'35d 


Davis, Samuel 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


78 or 
72 


Cumberland . 


('20). 


'40 








78 
73 


Cumberland . 
Kennebec . . 




'35c 


Davis, Sanford 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


('20 as Sandford). 


'35c 


Davis, Thomas, 2d . 


CoTit.navy . . . . 


Seaman . . . 


76 


Hancock. . . . 


(•20, ship "Ran- 
ger") d. Feb. 20, 
1831. 


'35d 


Davis, Thomas, 1st. 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


74 or 

75 


York 


(•20, also '35c) 


'35c 


Davis, William, 4th. 


N. Y. line 


Private. . . . 


89 


Somerset. 




'35c 


Davis, William, 2d . 


Mass.l ine 


Private. . . . 


79 


Lincoln 


('20). 


'40 


Davis, William 






S3 


Wal'o 




•35c 


Davis, William 


Mass. line 


Corporal . . 


72 


Oxford 


('20) d. Nov. 18, 
1823. 


'35c 


Davis, William, 3d . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


7] 


Penobscot. . , 


(•20). 


'40 


Davis, William . . . 






78 
79 


Penobscot. . 
Cumberland . 




'35d 


Davis, Zebu Ion 


Mass. mil 


Drummer . 




'35d 


Day, Abraham 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


71 


Lincoln . 




'40, 








77 




Res. Phipsburg. 


'403 
'35c 


Day, Mehitahle . . 






87 
79 


York 

York 


Day, Nathaniel, 2d. 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


('20). 


'35c 


Day, Nathaniel. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


71 


Oxford 


('20). , 


.40 








77 




Res. Lovpll. 


'40] 


Deab, George 






89 Lincoln 


Res. WalJoboro. 


'35c 


Deal , George 


Sheldon's 


Private 


79 Waldo 


('20, from Conn.) 






dragoons. 








Same as pre- 
ceding'/ 


'35d 


Dean, Abraham. . . . 


Mass. g tate. . . . 


Pvt.& Serg. 


72 


Oxford. 




'40 








80 
74 


Somerset .... 
Oxford 




'35d 


Dean, Edniond 


Mass.l ine 


Private. . . . 


('20, as Edmund). 


'40 








81 
77 


Oxford 

Washington. 




'35d 


Dean, Gideon 


Mass. mil 


Private 




'40 








80 ■U^n^liinirfr.Ti 




•35d 


Dean, John 


Mass. line 


Pvt. » Corp. 
& Matross 


73 


Waldo. 




'40 








81 Waldo 


Res. Palermo. 


'29 


Dearborn, Henry. . . 


N. H 


Capt.of Art 










& L't Col. 








'35e 




N. H.line 


Lieut. Col. 


— 


Kennebec . . . 


d. June 6, 1828. 




'35d 


Dearborn, Levi 


Mass. line 


Pvt.&Coip. 


86 


Kennebec. . . 




'40 








77 




Res. Greene. 


'i5c 


Dearhourn, Simeon, 


N. H. line 


Private. . . . 


73 Kennebec . . . 


('20 as Dearborn, 




J'. 










Simeon, Jr.) 
Prob. same as 
preceding. 


'35d 


DeBasse, Joshua. . . 


Mass. state. . . . 


Pvt.& Mus 


76 


Oxford. 




'35c 


Decker, Thomas. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


72 


Lincoln 


Same as Dicker. 


'35c 


Decker, Thomas. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


68 


Lincoln. 




'40 








86 




Res. Boothbay. 


'35d 


Decker, William. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


88 Lincoln. 




'35c 


Dedston, Benjamin. 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


74 


Somerset .... 


Same as Didston? 


'35o 


Delaney, Nathan. . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


62 


Kennebec . . . 


d. Mar. 5, 1827. 
Same as Delay? 


'35c 


Delano, Alpheus. . . . 
Delano, Amasa, see 
Dilano. 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


90 


Lincoln 


(•20). 


'35d 


Delano, Aniaziah. . . 


Mass. mil 


Private. . . . 


75 


Kennebec. 




'35c 


Delano, Jabez 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


75 


Oxford 


('20). 


'40 


Delano, Jonathan . . 






79 
75 


Oxford 

Lincoln 


Res. Livermore. 


'35c 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


('20). 


'40 








88 


Lincoln 


Res. Warren. 


1794 


Delano, Seth 


10th Mass. regt. 


Sergeant . . 


Res. Winthrop. 














Enl.8 Jan.,1777 














wounded at Tar- 














rytown, 1779. 


'35d 


Delano, Setli 


Mass. line 


Sergeant . . 


82 


Somerset .... 


('20). See also 
Dalino. 


'31a 






Private. . . . 


— 




Rejected as serv- 








ing only 6 mos. 


'20 


Delay, Nathan 










Same as Delaney? 















REVOLUTIONARY PKXSTONERS IN MAINE i55 



List. 



Name. 



Rank. Age. County. 



Remarks. 



'35d 

'35d 

'20 

•35d 

'35d 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

'35c 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'20 

'20 

'35c 

'40 

'20 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

•40 

'35d 

'40 

'35d 

•40 

'40 

•35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'40 

'35c 

'35c 

'35c 

•40 

•35c 

'35c 

'40 
■35c 
'40 
'35c 

'35c 
'40 
'35c 
'35c 



Delesdernier, Lewis Mass. state. 



Demons, Gamaliel. 
Dennet, Ebenezer . 
Dennett, Ebenezer 



Alass. line. . 

N. H 

I Mass. line 

mil. 
I Mass. mil. . . 

Mass. line. . 



Dennett, Joseph. 
Dennison, David. 

Dennison, Robert . .iMass. line liZl\l- 

Deshon, James Mass. line jPnyate. 

Des" on, Moses Mahs. 



Lieutenant 

Private. . . . 
Private. 
Private . . . . 

Private. . . 
Private . . . 



82 



Washington 
Washington. 
Kennebec. 



lil Private. 



72 



79 York 

74 Cumberland 

79|Cuniberland 

SSiKennebec. 

72 York. ' 

71 York. 

76 York 



Mass. line. 

Mass 

|R. I 

I Mass. line . 



Dexter, Thomas. . . 
Dicker, Thomas. . . 
Dickev, Eleazer. . . 
Dickey, Eleazer. . . 
Dickey, Eleazer B. 
Didston, Benjamin .Mass. 

Dilano, Amasa k ; ' ' ' i- 

Dillingham, John.. .IMass. hne. 



Ensign 
Private . 
Private. 
Private . 



Private. 



85 Washington. 



('31aV 

See also Damans. 



(•20) (•31b). 

('20). 

Res. Freeport. 



I Res. Waterbo- 

rough. 
('20, '28). 
Same as Decker. 



76|Waldo. 
80 Waldo. 



Private. 



DUUniham; John! : .Mass. mil jPrivate. 



I Dillingham, Lemuel.jCont. navy jSeaman . 

Di^"ir^Levi Mass.line: '. '. . .iPrivate. 



g£^?^.-.::;::|Mass.iine:;:::,serge^^^ 

iDoane, Amos |Mass. line Private. . 

JDoane, Oliver |Mass. stat 



Iprivate &| 
I Seaman 



Dcbb'n, James. 
Dobbins, James 



S. C. line Private. 



Do5d;'Stephen iMass. line ^^|.^^*^nV 

n^A„^ AViiipr ... Mass. line bergeant 



Dodge, Abner |Mass 

\ Dodge. Belsey. . ■ 
Dodge, Nicholas 



N. H. line. 



Dodge, Paul ! Mass. line . 



Private . 
Lieutenant I 



Private . 



Doe, Henry ;;■ " ' 'v ' ' 

Doe, James Mass.line. 

Doe, Olive 1 • ■ : ■ • • 

Doe, Sampson Mass. line . 

Doe, Simon Mass. line IPrivate. 



Private. 



'40 
'35c 

'35c 

'20 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 
'35c 

'35d 
'35c 

'35c 

'40 

'35d 

'40 

'35c 

'35d 

'35c 

'40 



Dolbear, Benjamin . Mass. line ll'V'^.l- 

Dole, Amos Mass. line Private. 



Dole, M atilda . 
Dole, Richard. 



Mass. line . 



Dolliff , Noah 

Dolliver, Peter . 

Dolloff, Richard. 
Doloff, Ricliard. 
Doniiell, Abigail . 



Donnell, Jotham . 
Donnell, Obadiah 



N.H.line. 

Mass . . . ■ 



Corpornl . 

Private . . 
Private . . 



N. H. state. 



Dorman, Israel. 
Dorman, John . 



Mass. line. . 
Cont. navy . 



Mass. line 
Mass. line . 



82 Cumberland 
— [Cumberland 
7i:Cumberland 
77 1 Cumberland 
76 Waldo. 

82 Waldo 

78 Cumberland. 

84 Cumberland , 
90 Penobscot . 

83 Kennebec . . . 
76 Penobscot . 
82 1 Penobscot . . 
80 Penobscot. 

85 Penobscot . 
88 Cumberland 
80 Cumberland 
74 1 Lincoln. . . . 
77|Cumberland 

75 Waldo 

751 Kennebec . . 

65 Lincoln. . . ■ 

73 1 Kennebec . . 
82 Waldo. 

87i Waldo 

761 Kennebec . 

— Somerset . . 
81 Somerset . . 
63 Somerset . . 
76 Penobscot . 

' 75 Penobscot 

87' ' 



Oxford 
Waldo. 



Private. 



Dorr, William Mass. line . 



Sergeant. 
Marine. . 



Private. 
Private. 



Private . 



85 Oxford . 
79 1 Oxford. 
79 York.. 

70 York.. 
69 York.. 



York. 
York. 



Doten, Samuel Mass. navy. 



I Doty, John 

i Doughty, Benjamin, 
Doughty, Ichabod.. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mariner. 



Res. Monroe. 

Same as Dedston? 

Res. Gray. 

d. July 1, 1819. 

(•20). 

Res. Minot. 

Res. Belfast. 

Res. Harpswell. 

Res. Bangor. 

(■20). 

(•20). 

Res. Hampden. 



Res. Orrington. 
'Res. Falmouth. 
1('20). 

('20, '31b). 
,|('20)d Jan.2S,1833 

Res. Burnham. 

('20)d. Dec. 10, 
1827. 
. ('20) ('31b a s 

Dodgei). 
. Res. Augusta. 

IRes. Burnham. 
('20) d. Dec. 2o, 
1828. 
■('20). 
.IRes. Fairfield. 

■lC20)d. July 20, 

1832. 
iRes. Orrington. 
.i('20) d. Dec. 4, 

1824. 

. .Same as Dalliver? 
. . Res. Rumford. 
.'Same as preceding 
Res. York, bee 
also Dunnell. 
. ('20, •31b). 
('20, ship "Ran- 
ger"). ('31b). 
. ('20, '31 b). 
('20) d. July 26, 
1827. 



Private. 
Private. 
Private. 



Kennebec. 

Kennebec . 

Cumberland . 
,.., Cumberland . 
65 1 Cumberland . 
92 Cumberland 
80 Cumberland . 
86iCumberland . 



Res. .\ugvista. 

Res N. Yarmouth 
(•20')d.Oct. 5,1827. 
d. Apr. 12, 1833. 
(•20). . 

Res. Brunswick. 



156 Sl'RAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORA 



Name. 



Seivice. 



Rank. 



Age 



Countj . 



Remarks. 



Doughty, James. 

Doughty, James. 
Doughty, James. 



Doughty, John 

Doughty, Jo.seph . . . 
Doughty, Nathaniel 



Douglass, Elisha 
Douglass, John. .• 



Dow, Henry. 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 

See Doty . 

Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 
Private. 



69 



Private. 
Private. 



Private. 



Dowlf; Ellis Mass. line i Private. 

Downe, Mary H . . 

Downing, John Mass. line. 

Downing, John 

Downing, Samuel . .Mass. line jPrivate. 



Downs, Aaron . 
Downs, Paul. . 
Doyen, Jacob. 



Cumberland 



Cumberland 
Lincoln .... 



Cumberland 
Cumberland 



71 Waldo. 
7.3 Oxford, 
so! Oxford. 
83 Lincoln . 



'35c Dovle, James . . 
'35d Doyle, Michael. 
'31a Doyne, Samuel. 



Drake, Ebenezer . 



Drake, John . . 
Drake, Oliver. 



Dresser, Aaron, 

Dresser, Elijah. 

Dresser, Joseph . 
Dresser, Levi . . 



Dresser, Richrrd . 



Drew, J erusha. . . 
Drown, Moses . . 
Drown, Stephen. 
Dudley, Nathan. 
Dudley, Nathan, 



Dummer, Jeremiah . 
Dummer, Richard. 
Dun, Joshua 



Mass. mil. 
N. H. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. mil. 



Mass. line . 



Mass. mil. 
Mass. line . 



Mass. state. 
Mass. line. . 



Mass. nul. . . 
Mass. state. 



Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 

Mass. mil. 
Mass. mil. 



Dunbar, David. 
Dunbar, David. 

Dunbar, Elijah. 



Dunbar, Jacob. . . . 
Dunbar, Jacob. . . , 
Dun liar, Obed . . , . 
Dunfee, Cornelius . 
Dun I'iuii, Anuni . , 
Dun 1 ; ir, Aniini, , 
Dun 1 ; n , Moses . 



Mass. line. 
Mass. line. 



Mass. mil. 
Mass. mil. 



Dniilnp, Dorcrs 
Dunlap, Janus . 
Dunlap, James. 
Dunlap, .John . . 



Mass. mil. 
Mass. line . 
Mass. line. 



Mass. line. 



Dunn, Christopher 



Mass. line. 

. , , » 

Mass. line. 

Mass. line. 



Private. 
Private. 



Private . 
Corpora 
Private. 



Private. 



Private. . . 
Private. . . 



Private. 
Private. 



82!Lincoln. ... 

68 Penobscot. . 
71 Hancock ... 
74 Cumberland 

69 Cumberland 
75, Cumberland 

79 York 

77 York. 

70 Somerset. . . . 

81 i Penobscot . . , 
73 1 Kennebec. 



Private. . . . 
Pvt.&Coip. 



Private. 



Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 
Pvt. & Pvt. 
of art.. . . 
Private. . . . 
Private. . . . 



74 

76 
67 

76 
81 
83 
89 
86 
72 
79 
76 
81 
83 
79 
75 
76 
74 or 
7e 
70 
77 
81 



Private. 



Private. . 
Private. . . . ' 77 
83 
79 
85 
93 

98 

Private 90 

Private 92 

Private.... 70 



Oxford . 



Oxford. 
Kennebec . . . 

Cumberland 
Cumberland., 
Oxford. 

Oxford 

Cumberland 
Oxford. 

Oxford 

York 

York 

Oxford 

York 

York 

Cumberland 



Oxford 

Kennebec. 
Kennebec . 
Oxford . .. . 



Private. 



Private.... 77 

84 

76 

Private....! 82 

; 88 

Private. ... I 64 



Private. 



74 



Hancock. . . 
Hancock. . . 
Hancock. . . 
Lincoln. 
Lincoln .... 
Oxford. 
Washington 
Washington. 
Kennebec . . 
Cunilierland 
Lincoln ... 

Oxford 

Oxford 



Lincoln . . 
Kennebec 
Lincoln , . 



Kennebec 



('20, '31b) (35c as 

James, 2d. 
Res. Harpswell. 
('20)d. Jan. 30, 

1820. 



('20). Also given 

Doty. 
Res, Burnham. 
('20). 

Res. Denmark. 
Transferred from 

HillsboroCo.,N. 

H., 1824. d. 

June 9, 1828. 
('20). 

Res. Bangor. 
('20). 

Res. Minot. 
('20). 

Res. Minot. 
Res. Berwick. 

('20) d. April 13, 

1830. 
('20). 

Claim rejected as 
he did not serve 
9 mos. in Cont. 
army. 

('20) o. Dec. 14, 
1829. 

('20) d. March 3, 
1828. 

Rci. Dp.nv'lle. 

Res. Turner. 



Res. Lovell. 

('20). 

Res. Buxton. 

Res. Buckfield. 

('20) d. 1825. 

('20). 



(•20). 

d. Sept. 2, 1832, 
Res. Andover, No. 

Surplus same as 

Dunn, J.? 
('20). 

Same as preceding 
Res. Penobscot. 

Ties. Nobleboro'. 

Res. Pembroke. 

('20). 

(■20). 

Res. Jefferson. 

('20). 

Res. Hartford. 

Res. Topsham. 

(•20). 

Res. Litchfield. 

(•20) d. Oct. 25, 

1818. 
('20). 



RE\^OLUTIOXARY PEXSIOXERS IX MAIXR 



0/ 



List. 


Name. 


Service. 


RaTik. 


A.ge. 


County 


Remarks. 


'35c 


Dunn, Joshua 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


j 
73 Cumberland . 


Same as Dun, J.? 


'35a 


Dunnells, John 




Private. . . . 


— York 


See also Donnell. 


'31a 


Dunnells, Oliver. . . . 




Private. . . . 






Claim rejected as- 
regt. was not on 
Cont. establish- 
ment. 


•35tl 


Dunning, John 


Mass. mil 


Pvt. & Serg 


81 


Cumberland . 




•20 


Durell, Benjamin. . . 


Mass 


Private. . . . 


— 




Same as Durrill? 


'35c 


Durell, Peter 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


65 


Oxford 


(•20)d. July 24, 
1823. 


'35d 


Durgen, John 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


84 


York. 




'35c 


Durow, Willfam. . . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


77 


Lincoln 


('20 as Duron) d. 
Oct. 21, 1832. 


'35d 


Durrell, David 


Mass. =tate. . . . 


Serg 


87 


York 


d. May 9, 1833. 


'35c 


Durrill, Benjamin . . 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


92 


Kennebec . . . 


d. Jan. 4, 1820. 
Same as Durell? 


'35c 


Dwelley, Allen 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


— 


Penobscot . . . 


{'20). 


•40 








78 


Penobscot . . . 


Res. West half 














Township No. 6. 


'35d 


Dwelly, John 


Mass. mil 


Seaman. . . 


(iS 


Waldo, 




'40 


Dyer, Bickford 






74 

87 


Waldo 

Cumberland . 




'35c 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


('20asRickford)o. 














May 5, 1828. 


'35c 


Dyer, Ephraim 


Mass. line 


Private 


77 


Hancock. . . . 


(•20). 


•40 


Dyer, Hannah 






77 


Cumberland . 


Res. Cape Eliza- 














beth. 


•35d 


Dyer, Isaac 


Mass. line 


Pvt. & Pvt. 
of art. . . 


74 


York 


('20, '31b,Isaac 2d) 


'40 


Dyer, Isaac 






82 


York 


Res. Limington. 


'35c 


Dyer, Isaac, 1st. . . . 


Mass. line 


Drummer . 


71 Lincoln 


(•20)d. Feb. 10, 














1820. 


'40 








86 
76 


Franklin 

Cumberland . 




■40 


Dyer, Mary 






Res. Harpswell. 


•35c 


Dyer, Paul 


Mass. line 


Private. . . . 


67 


Cumberland . 


('20) d. April 13, 
1827. 



AIAIXE IXLAND SCENERY 





On the Presumscot near Riverton Park 



158 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

SALMON. SHAD AND ALEWIVES, RIVERS OF MAINE 
IN OLDEN DAYS 

By Honorable Harry B. Austin, former Chairman Commis- 
sioners Maine Inland Fisheries and (lame 

The first fish commission was created under a resolve from the 
Legislature approved on Jan. 28, 1867, entitled. "Relating to the 
restoration of free fish in the rivers and inland waters of Maine." 
This commission consisted of two members. Nathan W. Foster and 
Charles G. Atkins, who investigated the fisheries conditions in the 
larger Maine rivers and followed their investigations with a report 
to the Governor and Council, under date of Jan. 16, 1868. the re- 
port comprising 95 printed pages. It took up pretty fully and in 
detail the salmon, shad, alewives and striped bass fisheries and 
affords very interesting information covering a period of nearly 
100 years prior to the date of the report. 

This Report 

Contains in view of the present nation and world-wide agitation 
for the conservation and increase of food products, many interest- 
ing facts as to the food resources of Maine in the fish line the first 
official notice of that industry or resource, and I could bv;t compare 
the conditions of that period with those of today. 

It seems that formerly all these species of fish were very prevalent 
in the Maine rivers and it is particularly interesting to note the 
cause, which in the opinion of the commissioners, brought about 
the gradual decline of the fisheries. 

Beginning at the westward of the State, it appears from the 
report that the Saco river was originally a salmon river and that 
they ascended the river as far as Salmon Falls, where a great many 
were in the old times taken. The last salmon taken at Salmon 
Falls is recorded in the year 1843. 

The falls at Biddeford and Salmon Falls were so high that no 
other migratory fishes ascended the river in any number above Bid- 
deford. l"he building of dams to furnish power for the cotton mills 
there created an obstacle which in the course of a few years caused 
the salmon to stop coming into this river in any appreciable numbers. 

In the Presumpscot river salmon were last seen in 1802. the rnn of these 
fish heing destroyed by the erection of a dam at the head of tide water 
during that year. 



MAINE FISHERIES IX OLDEX DAYS 159 



It should be mentioned here, perhaps, what some may not know or recall, 
that the salmon seek the upper waters of fresh water rivers to spawn, and 
do not spawn at all in salt water. 

Ill the Androscoggin, salmon were formerly observed as far 
up as Rumford Falls, breeding in the main river and most of the 
tributaries, g'oing up the little Androscoggin as far as Paris and 
although falls at Lewisiton were difficult, they did not prevent the 
passage of the salmon until the dam was built. We have no report 
of the salmon ever occurring in the main river above Rumford 
Falls, no doubt owing to the obstruction of the natural high falls 
at this point. Salmon were caught at Lewiston as late as 1875, the 
first dam built at Brunswick not being high enough to stop their 
passage. Alewives formerly came up the Androscoggin and bred 
in Sabattus pond. 

In the Kennebec river at Augusta the number of salmon taken in 
1820 was estimated at 4,000. and in 1822, in one day, one seine was 
known to take 700 shad, while in 1857 a seine took in that year 
300 shad and 20,000 alewives. Charles Hume of Augusta fished 
at Waterville with a drift net from 1830 to 1837, taking 150 salmon 
yearly. Prior to the building of the first dam at Augusta in 1837, 
shad were taken in large numbers as far up at Waterville. the 
yield in one day mentioned being 6,400. 

Many salmon and shad were also taken prior to 1837 at Skowhe- 
gan. salmon being taken as far up as Caratunk Falls. The vear 
that the first dam at Augusta was carried away. Colonel Thompson 
of Embden states that 60 salmon were taken in one night at these 
falls. In 1867 the whole number of salmon taken at Augusta was 
only 70, and in the whole river the catch was estimated at but 1,200. 

Sandy river, which flows into the Kennebec at Norridgewock, 
w^as formerly a salmon river and a favorite spawning ground. 
Shad and alewives came up as far as Farmington, the alewives 
spawning in Varnum's pond in Temple. The first obstruction in this 
river was a dam built in 1804 at New Sharon, which stopped the 
shad and alewives, but a fish way which permitted the salmon to 
pass, was maintained for a few years. On very high water the 
salmon were ab^e to pass the dam. as David Hunter of Strong 
took a salmon in the river there as late as 1826. 

Conditions in the Carrabassett river, another tributarv to the 
Kennebec and a clear mountain stream like the Sandy, were much 
the same, salmon ascending the river as far as Kingfield. At New 
Portland so many were sometimes taken that onlv the bellies were 



i6o SPRAGUE^S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



saved, the rest being thrown away. After the building of the Au- 
gusta dam, they disappeared from the Carrabassett river, but during 
the year this dam was out. they ascended that stream, 20 being re- 
ported taken at North Anson village. 

The Penobscot river has suffered less loss of trsh than any other 
large Maine river. In 1867. the time this hrst report was made, 
shad ascended the river for many miles. On the west branch they 
went as far as Grand Falls, near the mouth of the Millinocket 
stream, and both salmon and shad were reported seen near North 
Twin lake. At that time there were but four dams on the lower 
reaches of the main Penobscot, viz.. in Veazie, Basin Mills, Great 
Works and Old Town. At present there are three other dams on 
the river, but all are provided with fishways. 

The Penobscot river being the only large Maine river which has 
been kept passable for the salmon, is now the only river to which 
they resort in any numbers which seems to show conclusively that 
a'.l our rivers need is the maintenance of fishways through the 
obstructing dams and the restocking of the main reaches with 
Atlantic salmon in order to re-establish in these rivers a supply of 
fish which, under present conditions would be of inestimable value 
to our state. 

A good example of experiments obtained in the line of improving 
fishing conditions is given in this first report relating to the Cobs- 
cook river, Washington county. In 1861 a movement was begun 
to restore the fish in that river, fishways being built over the ob- 
structing dams and 31 alewives were put in lakes at the head of the 
river, the result being as follows: From 1862 to 1864 very few 
fish were taken, but they gradually increased in the two followmg 
years and in 1867 they were again abundant, crowding the fish- 
ways all day long. 

The prices of fish in those days of long ago would make the 
'.vjusewife sigh, shad being the most abundant, with salmon next 
-nd alewives little esteemed — and shad selling at Old Town for 
$1 ])er 100 pounds. That price was not sufficient at one time to 
enable the fishermen to secure barrels and salt and but few were 
'lisposed of otherwise than as fresh fish. P>efore the dams were 
])uilt, salmon was plenty at six cents a pound and shad at six cents 
apiece. Those prices do not prevail today, xou ma\- have noticed — - 
and that fact seems a great argument, as stated, for the re-establish- 
ment of the Maine fisheries on a basis which would restore their 
commercial w. )rth. 



REVOLUTIONARY GRAVES 



i6i 



In the report of 1867 referred to by Mr. Austin and which is of mucli 
historical vahie we learn that then the State otficers not only received free 
transportation passes but gratefully acknowledged them in their reports. 

On page 2 is the following which is almost startling in these days of 
civi?; virtue. 

"We have been favored with free season tickets on the following passenger 
routes : Portland and Kennebec Railroad, Portland and Rochester Rail- 
road, Grand Trunk Railroad, Portland and Machias Steamboat Line, and 
occasional passes on the Portland, Saco and Portsmouth Railroad, Concord 
(N. H.) Railroad and International Line of Steamers to St. John." 

EDITOR. 



REVOLUTIONARY GRAVES LOCATED BY MARGARET 
GOFFE MOORE CHAPTER, D. A. R.. MADISON, MAINE 



Nauie 

Oliver Wood 
Maris Gould 
John Clark 
Joseph Tarliell 
N^athan Parlin 
Biley Smith 
Capt. Moses Case 
Capt. Enoch Page 



Burying Place. 
Norridgewock 



Cornville 



IN MADISON, MAINE. 



Andrew Russell 
Benj. Patten 
Jonathan Eames 
Josiah Nutting 
Stephen Gage 
Magnus Beckey 
Ebenezer Dean 
Henry W'>mian 
Elisha Lircoln 
Joshua Blackwell 
Pichard Hayden 
Ebenezer French 
Josenh Merrill 
Benjamin Baxter 
Joseph Frederic 
Tosenh Bray 
Toseph Greenleaf 
Tabez Bowen 
Jonathan Russell 

near Patterson Bridge in ^ladison. 



Morse Cemetery 
Village Cemetery 

ts ft 

Jewett Cemetery 



Blackwell Cemetery 
near Hayden Lake 
New Sharon, ]\laine 

Mercer, Maine 
Starks, Maine 



near Corson Corner 
D'an forth Cemetery 



Adella Veasev Moore 
Chairman, Committee on marking Rey. Soldier. Grayes and TTi>toric Spots. 



i62 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



OXFORD COUNTY GLEANINGS 

(KKOM <)LI» MASSACIIISETTS KEGISTKltS) 

1809 

Rrfrcsciitatiz'cs to the Massachusetts House of I^cprcscnta- 
tivi's ivcrc John Turner of Turner; Enoch Hall. Buckfield; 
Elias Stozi'cll. /'oris; James Starr. Jr., Jay: Simeon Waters, 
Livermorc : Elifhaz Chafmau. Bethel: f/annibal llamlin, 
IVaterford. 

Turner. Hamlin and Hill were members of the committee on 
Eastern Lands. Judah Dana was County Attorney. Justices of 
the Common Pleas were Simon Frye of Fryeburg, Sanmel Parri< 
of Hebron and Luther Cary of Turner. 

Special Justices: Cyrus Hamhn and Daniel Stowell of Paris. 
Clerk of the S. J. Court and Common Pleas : Cyrus Hamlin, Paris. 
Justices of the Court of Sessions: Levi Hubbard. Paris. Chief 
Justice. Associate Justices: John Turner of Turner; Joseph How- 
ard of Brownfield ; Ebenezer Poor of East Andover ; W. C. Whit- 
ing of Hebron. Josiah Bisco of Paris. Clerk of the Sessions. Judah 
Dana of Fryeburg. Judge of Probate, and Samuel A. Bradley of 
Fryeburg, Register of Probate. 

Attorneys at the S. J. Court: Henry Farwell. Buckfield; Sam 
A. Bradley, judah Dana. Fryeburg. Attorney at the Common 
Pleas: Luther Emerson of Livermore. 

Fryeburg Academy incorporated February 8, 1792. Officers in 
year 1809: Preceptor: Amos J. Cook, A. M. President: Rev. 
Nathaniel Porter. Treasurer : Moses Ames, Esq. Trustees : Amos 
J. Cook, A. M., Capt. James Osgood. Sam A. Bradley, Esq.. Col. 
David Page. Hon. Ceo. Thacher. Rev. Lincoln Ripley and Philip 
Page. Esq. 

SheriiT: David Learned of Livermore. Deputy Sheriffs: John 
Cafely. Buckfield; Philip Page, David Badger. Fryeburg; Jonathan 
Bemis, Alvin Bagden. Paris ; Hannibal Hamlin, Simeon Woodbury. 
\\'aterford. 

Blazing Star Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons at Rum ford. 
Officers, 1809: Joseph K. White, Rum ford. Master; Wil- 
liam Wheeler, S. Warden; Joseph Lufkin. J. Warden; Jonathan 
Holman, Treasurer ; Abel Wheeler, Secretary ; David H. Farnum, 
S. Deacon ; .\lvin Balster, J. Deacon. 



OXFORD COUNTY GLEANINGS i^^3 



(MAINE RE(ilSTKK) 
1832 

County Commissioners: James Starr, Jay; Abel Gibson, Brown- 

'tlXf r La^y '^^uel F. Brown, Buc.field ; WHliam 
F^::^;: hU Farwen. Levi Stowell, Dixfield , Judah Dar.. 
Stephen Chase. John S. Barrows, Fryeburg ; Jarms S. Keith, Ox- 
f d Reuel Washburn, Livermore ; Levi Whitman Norway; 
Stephen Emery, Timothy J. Carter, Paris; Peter C. Virgn. Rum- 
ford; Wilham K. Porter, Turner 

\ttorney at the Supreme Judicial Court: Joseph G. Co.e, Pan. 

.r ^L. Plea^- Virgil D. PaiTis, Buckheld : 
Attorneys at Common Pleas. v r^n 1 . Wm A 

Isaiah P. Moody, Lovell ; Charles Whitman, Waterfoid, \\m. A. 
Evans, Livermore Falls. 



1834 



Stephen Emery of Paris was Judge of Probate with a yearly 
salary of $i75-0O. and Joseph G. Cole of Paris was Register salary 
L.oco lolm J. Ho^^man of Dixfield was Colonel of 2nd Regi- 
nent Sixth Division of the State Militia; Daniel Merritt of Jay 
was Lt. Colonel; Cyrus Thompsom, Hartford, Major; John M. 
Eu-ti?, Rumford, Aujutant. 17 n 

Samuel Gibson was Post-Master at Denmark ; Henry EarweU, 
Dixfield: Judah Dana, Fryeburg; John Tripp, Hebron; Joseph I.. 
Cde Paris- Seth Morse, South Paris; William Reed, Norway; 
Wm' K Porter. Turner, and Isaac Strickland, Livermore. 

In 1837 there were two academies in Oxford County which had 
received donations of wild lands from the State as follows: Frye- 
bui- Academv 15.000 acres; Hebron Academy 11.520 acres. 

sWhen'Emery of Paris was Judge of Probate Joseph G^ Cole 
Clerk of Courts; Timothy J. Carter. County Attorney. In the 
''Eastern District" Alanson Merrill of Paris was Register of Deeds, 
and Daniel Ci.ement of Fryeburg in the ''Western D-ti-ict 

The Countv Commissioners were: Job Prmce. 1 unici . Abel 

Gibson, Brownfield; John Hersey Canton. ,f ,,wand 

Tn 18^7 Oxford Countv raised 13(^.307 bushel, of wheat and 

r^^. ^te bountv for the same (under act passed March 2,. 

^t^S^H^-e were twentv-eight lawvers in practice in the entii. 
county. That year the state senators w,ere : John \\ . Dana. 



164 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF AIAIXE HISTORY 



Frye])iirg- ; X'irgil D. I'arris, Bucktield ; Lee Strickland. Liveniiore. 
jolm j. Perry, later a member of Congress, was a member of the 
Maine House of Representatives from the town of Oxford. 



The first town meeting in 1 lebron was held under a warrant of 
William Widgery, Esquire, one of the justices of the peace for 
Cumberland County, dated March 15, 1792 to John Greenwood, the 
freeholders, and other inhabitants of the town of Hebron c[ua]ified 
by law to vote on town affairs. The meeting assemb^-cd at the 
dwelling house of Mr. Asa Bearce on Monday the 2nd day of 
April, 1792, and made choice of Daniel lUicknam for moderator 
and John (ireenwood for town clerk. 

Other officers were elected as follows: John Donham, John 
Greenwood and Ho'.mes Thomas. Selectmen and Assessors ; Asa 
Bearce, Town Treasurer ; John Bicknell. Constable and Collector of 
Taxes ; Robert Small, Samuel Craft, Morris Bumpas, Nathan Dud- 
ley. Isaac Whittemore, Mellatiah Cobb and Daniel Bartlett, Sur- 
veyors of Highways: John Washburn, John Caldwell and Gideon 
Cushman. Tythingmen ; Reuben Packard and Eliab Richmond, 
W'ardens. 

The votes for State of^cers that year were as follows: For (tOv- 
ernor, "His Excellency, John Hancock, Esq., had 48 votes ; for 
Lieutenant Governor, His Honor, Samuel Adams had 41 votes." 
William W'idgery received 40 votes for State Senator. 

The first trustees of Hebron Academy were : Rev. James Hooper 
of Paris ; Samuel Paris of Hebron ; Ezekiel WHiitman of New Glou- 
cester; Cyrus Hamlin of Paris; John Greenwood of Hebron; Dr. 
Luther Carey of Turner; Dr. Jesse Rice of Minot and William Bar- 
rows of Hebron. 

The act dividing Hebron and establishing the new town of Ox- 
ford was approved February 27, 1829. Winthrop B. Norton, one 
of the justices of the peace for the county of Oxford, issued his 
warrant to Cvrus Shaw, one of the freehold inhabitants of Oxford, 
on the ninth day of March, 1829. "requiring him to sunnnon and 
notify the inhabitants of said town of Oxford, qualified to vote in 
town affairs, to assemble at the school-house near Craig's Mills in 
said Oxford, on 'i'hm-sday the nineteenth day of March instant, 
at one of the clock in the afternoon, for the purpose of choosing a 
Moderator and all such town officers as towns are by law author- 
ized and re(|uired to choose and appoint at their annual meeting. 
The officers were: Jacob Tewksbury, Moderator: Dan Perry. Town 



OXFORD COUXTY GLEAXIXGS i6; 



Clerk; Samuel H. King. Ebenezer Holmes and Cyrus Shaw, Select- 
men ; Dan Perry. Treasurer ; Jacob Tewksbury. ( iiles Shurtleff and 
Alonzo King, Superintending School Committee ; Alonzo King, 
Constable and Collector of Taxes. 



The first town meeting in the town of Paris was held at the dwell- 
ing house of Reuben Hubbard, July i6, 1793. Lemuel Jackson wa'^ 
moderator ; Josiah Bisco, town clerk ; Isaac Bolster, Lemuel Jack- 
son and Xathan Nelson, selectmen; Josiah Bisco, John Bessee and 
John Willis, assessors; David Stowell. treasurer; Jonathan Hall. 
Nathaniel Haskell. William Swan. Benjamin Hammond and S'^th 
Carpenter, tythingmen ; Daniel Whitney, field driver ; Benjamin 
Hammond, deer reeve ; Philip Donohue, John Daniels, Samuel Dur- 
rell and Henry Hill, hogreeves; Isaac Bolster, Abner Shaw, John 
Willis, Seth Carpenter and Mercdach B. Smith, school committee. 



Roscoe A. Kingsbury of the firm of Thurston & Kingsbury, and 
one of Bangor's best known business men. died at his home, 98 Essex 
street, Bangor, Thursday morning, March 13. 1919, after an illness 
of several weeks, having been confined to his honie for some time 
prior to his death. Mr. Kingsbury was born in Bradford nearly 
68 years ago. (the son of Thomas R. Kingsbury, a prominent resi- 
dent of that town, and in early life was engaged in the grocery 
business, His first venture was at East Corinth where he formed a 
partnership with a man named Everett Beale. the firm name being 
Kingsbury & Beale. This partnership lasted until Mr. Kingsbury 
came to Bangor about 38 years ago to engage in business on his own 
account and for two years he carried on a successful grocery in 
what is known as the Cobb store on Main street. Mr. Kingsbury 
was a man of intelligence and \vide information and interested in 
all that was for the better welfare of the connnunity. He took 
much interest in Maine historical research and had been a subscriber 
to the journal from its first issue. 



Another one of our subscribers whose death occurred in l^lls- 
worth. (Maine), March 22, 1919. was John O. W'hitney, president 
of Whitcomb. Haynes & W'hitney, timber operators and lumber 
manufacturers at Ellsworth, and a director and ofificer in banks and 
business houses, died Saturday night. He was a former alderman 
and a former president of the l^)Oard of Trade. He was 64 years 
old. 



i66 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



A SOCIAL EVENT IN AUGUSTA, MAINE, IN 1854 
(Contribuled by Wm. Otis Sawtelle, Haverford, Pa.) 

Military & Civic Ball 

With Ladies, is respectfully invited to attend a Balll 

At The 

State House, Augusta, 

Wednesday Evening, Feb. 22, 1854. 



AUGUSTA 
Gen. Albert Tracy, 
Capt. F. D. 'Oallender, U. S. A. 
Col. John A. Pettingill, 
Col. Elias G. Hedge, 
Maj. Wlm. iH. Chisam, 
Maj. Geo. S. Carpenter, 
Maj. H. Baker, 
Capt. Joseph Anthony, 
James A. Thompson, 
Charles A. Lombard. 
Joseph W. Ellis, 
Thcanas F. Boynton. 

HALDOWEDL 
Maj. T. 'M. Andrews, 
Hiram Fuller, 
A. ;S. Washburn. 

FARM'INIGDALiE 
Col. !F. T. Lally, 
Geo. H. RolDinson. 

GARDLYER 
F. P. Thebald, 
F. A. Butman. 

PITTSTO'N 
Gen. Caleb Stevens, 
Capt. J. D. Warren. 

WATEiRVILL/E 
J. M. Crooker. 

SAOO 
Cant. Ira H. Foss. 

WISICAlSiSET 
Maj. J. Babson. 



Managers. 

BAINGOR 
Gen. G. G. Cushman, 
Capt. Jno-. L. Modsdon, 
Lt. A. P. 'Bradbury, 
John A. Peters, 
Samuel P. Dinsmore, 
Charles S. Cros'by. 

piQiRTLAND 

Gen. Wendell P. Smith, 
C3pt. iSam. J. Anderson, 
Col. Chas. N. Little, 
Edward El. Upham. 

BATtl 

Maj. Chas. N. Bodfish, 
Col. E. K. Harding, 
Lt. F. D. iSewall, 
Lt. J. G. Richardson. 

BlIDiDIEFiORfD. 
Col. R. M. Chapman. 

FARlM'IlNiGTO'N 
Gen. E. C. Belcher. 

WAIJDOBiORO 

Gen. W. S. Cochran. 

BELFAST 
Col. A. W. Johnson. 

ROCKLAiXlD 
Col. iH. G. Berry. 

RiIiCHMOND 
T. J. Southard. 



Floor Managers, 



Joseph W\ Ellis, 
Charles A. Lambard, 
Samuel P. Dinsmore, 



Col. E. K. Harding, 
Maj. G. IS. Carpenter, 
E. E. Upham. 



Officers and .Members of Military Cnmiiarics will appear in L^niform. 
Music by Fales' Band, Assisted by Eiuincnt ^Tusicians Friim Boston. 



SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY 



Entered as second class matter at the post office, Dover, Maine, by John 
Francis Sprague, Editor and Publisher. 

Terms : For all numbers issued during the year, including an index and 
all special issues, $i.oo. Single copies, 25 cents. Bound volumes $2.00 each. 

Postage prepaid on all items, except bound volumes west of Mississippi 
River. 

Commencing with Vol. 3, the terms will be $1.00 only to subscribers who 
pay in advance, otherwise $1.50. 

This publication will be mailed to subscribers until ordered discontinued. 



OUR MESSAGE TO YOU 

FIR.ST TEACH THE BOY AND GIRL TO KNOW AND LOVE THEIR 
OWN TOWN, COUNTY AND STATE AND YOU HAVE GONE A LONG 
WAY TOWARD TEACHING THEM TO KNOW AND LOVE THEIR 
COUNTRY. 

BROWSINGS BY THE EDITOR IN HIS OWN LIBRARY 

III. 

The Maine Historical Society held a meeting at Augusta Feb. 2. 
1855. Robert H. Gardiner was its president and WilHam Willis 
was the recording secretary. Mr. Willis delivered the "Intro- 
ductory address. " (') 

Our Society was incorporated in 1822; the number of corporators was 49; 
the first meeting was held in Portland, April nth, at which Albion K. Parris, 
then Governor of the State, was chosen President, Benjamin Hasey, of 
Topsham, Recording Secretary, Edward Russell, Corresponding Secretary, 
Prentiss ]\Iellen, then Chief Justice, Treasurer, and Rev. Edward Payson, 
Librarian. Of these officers. Gov. Parris is the only survivor: he was then 
the 3^oungest of the number, and the youngest governor Maine ever had, 
being but 33 years old when he was chosen. 

Mr. Hasey, the first Secretary, died in 1851. in his 80th year, and the oldest 
but one, of the surviving lawyers in Maine. He was born in Lebanon in 
this State, graduated at Harvard College, in the class of Josiah Quincy 1790, 
studied his profession with Judge Thacher, of Biddeford, and established 
himself in Topsham. where for 57 years he faithfully and honestly pur- 
sued his profession to the end of his life. Of Chief Mellen and Dr. Payson, 
each eminent in his chosen sphere of duty, this audience needs no informa- 
tion. 



(') Collections Maine Hist. Soc. Vol. 4, p. 6. 



i68 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Of the 49 original members, 32 are dead, many of whom dignihed and 
adorned their age. William King, our first governor, connected with a 
family of great nien — Rufus and Cyrus, all natives of our State, sound and 
distinguished statesmen — ^was himself a man of strong powers of mind and 
a leading spirit for many years in our political and commercial affairs. 
Benjamin Orr, Stephen Longfellow, Gov. Enoch Lincoln, John Holmes, 
Judges Bridge and Cony, Dr. Benjamin Vaughan of English fame, the 
venerable Judge David Sewall and Wm. D. Williamson the Historian of our 
State, all original members, deserve a mention in this brief summary of our 
Society. Statesmen, judges, scholars — in tlheir several spheres they filled 
large spaces in public estimation, and sustained active positions in the 
inauguration of our state and our public affairs. Since that event, scarce 
a third of a century has passed, and the mould has already gathered upon 
the memory of men, the most distinguished of their day, among us. The 
first Governor, the first tiwo Senators in Congress, Holmes and Chandler, 
five of the seven Councillors, five of the seven representatives in Congress, 
the lirst Chief Justice, Prentiss Mellen, the President of the Senate and 
Speaker of the House of Representatives — men of high and honorable ambi- 
tion, men of talents, energy and enterprise, have passed on in funeral pro- 
cession, and the places which they filled and adorned, are now occupied liy 
men of another generation. But their acts live: they laid the foundations of 
a new civil society ; they put in motion a new organization of great power 
and capacity, which has been moving on with accelerated strength, evolving 
new forces; fraught with wealth, with genius, with enterprise and social 
influence, which we perceive and partake of while the vital energy of those 
stirring spirits, fnr which a kingdom seemed too small a bound, lies cold 
and silent in the grave. 



Als(j in this volume is a paper by Aiigiisttts C. Rol^bins of 
Brtinswick on "American Manufactiu'es" and was read at this 
meeting. It was a brief histoi"y of the progress which American 
manufacturing industries had made to that time. He proves that 
Washington was at his first inaugm^ation dressed in a full suit of 
American cloth made in Hartford, Conn. He appends to his 
remarks an original letter from Washington to General Knox of 
Thomaston, Maine, and says : 

If any are curious to knoiw how it was prticured, T will gratify their curi- 
osity by stating — That Mrs. John Ilnlmes (widow of tlie late lion. J(Min 
Holmes) who was the youngest daughter of Gen. Knox, presented this 
letter of Washington's to Mrs. Edward Robinson of Thomaston ; INIrs. 
Rol)inson presented it to me, and T now present it to the Historical Society 
of -Maine. 

"Mount Vernon, March 2d. 1780. 

My Dear Sir; — I beg you to accept my acknowledgement of and thanks 
for your obli'^ing favors of the I2th. l6th and iqtli of last nionlh, and 
particularly for the trouble you have had in procuring and forwarding for 



EDITORIAL 169 



me a suit of tlie Hartford [Manufacture. It is come safe, and exceeds my 
expectation. I will take an early opportunity of paying the cost of it. 

The result of the late elections will not only soon lie known, but the 
efifects of them will soon be discovered. Of the nine Representatives 
(announced) for this State, six are decided federalists; and the three (not 
yet known ) from Kentucky, it is presumed, from the best accounts which 
have been received from thence, will be in unison with them. To hear 
that the votes have run in favor of Mr. Adams, gives me pleasure. 

The severe weather, and uncommonly Iiad condition of the Roads in this 
■quarter will prevent the members from this State, giving their attendance in 
time. One of them went from here this morning only, and two yesterday. 

I hope this will tind you -perfectly recovered from your late painful dis- 
order, and Mrs. Knox and the rest of the family in good health. Our afifec- 
tionate compliments are offered to them, and with sentiments of the sincerest 
friendship. 

I am ever Yours, 

G. WASHIXGTOy. 

General Knox. 



The fifth article in this volitnie is "A Discourse" dehvered before 
the Society at Brunswick August 2, 1854, by George Burgess, D. D., 
Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Chutxh in Maine. From this 
discourse we take the following extracts showing his view of social 
development in the early days of Maine. 

From 1607 to 1677, the Province of Maine, in the larger sense of that 
term, was in this state of confused incipiency. There was no general gov- 
ernment : the attempt to produce union in religion was vain : the Episcopal 
establishment never prevailed : the Puritan establishment was not effectually 
introduced : and the settlements on the borders of the wilderness were 
kept in weakness and poverty. The character which such a history would 
leave behind it could not disclose any strong and harmonious development. 
There would be little more than the rude fraginents resulting from an 
abortive effort to produce a nolile statue: or rather, little more than the 
scattered vegetation which misht yet, collected and planted anew, grow^ into 
a noble grove or garden. Self-reliance might be expected, and firmness, and 
endurance. The stricter virtues of the Puritans might probably be some- 
what wanting; their rigid regard for the Sabbath: their devotional customs; 
their knowledge of the Scriptures ; their readiness to suffer for conscience' 
sake. As little were the settlers likely to possess the faults of the Puritans: 
their narrowness; their tendency to spiritual pride: their indiscriminate hos- 
tility to old usages ; often quite as innocent as their own, and niTre significant 
and beautiful. 

Something too, T suppose, has come down to us, though obscurely and 
indirectly, from that original spirit of navigating adventure, which so early 
planted the cross of the Christi;m discoverers far up the Kennebec and the 
Penobscot. The pinnaces of English fishermen were never since absent 
from our waters. Half of the home of many a colonist, and alnmst ;ill his 



I70 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



journeys were on the deep. Maritime pursuits became the necessary herit- 
age of the people who sliould inherit this coast of harbors and of storms. 
"Naviget: haec summa est." In the mariners whose white sails are now 
spread to the winds of the Pacific, or dart, almost with the speed of the birds, 
from China round the globe homeward, we see the successors, in an unbroken 
line, of Weymouth and Smith, of Gilbert and Vines. 

In all this period of eighty-three years, I suppose that the few thousands 
of settlers were little more than doubled in number. It is hardly possible to 
paint too strongly the disastrous fruits of such harrassing strife. For the 
first half of the period, no progress was made in cultivation ; scarcely a 
foot was won from the forests. Afterwards the energy of the colonists 
was expended in planting and sustaining firm military outposts, and in ven- 
turing forth to expilore a little the vast desert beyond. There were in 1760 
but thirteen incorporated townships. They formed little more than a streak 
along the coast, from Kittery to Pemaquid. Richmond was a frontier for- 
tress ; New Gloucester the extremest point where the smoke ascended from 
the cabin of a civilized family. Almost a century was lost and more than 
lost to the peaceful growth of the province, and it was not till British ban- 
ners floated over the precipice of Quebec, that the woods of Maine were 
open to the feet of the emigrant. 

It is not to be denied that the Indian wars, with their consequences, im- 
mensely retarded all social cultivation in this eastern country. There is a 
refinement, which is efTcctcd bv time and affluence and all the appliances 
which are at the disposal of old and opulent communities. I do not speak 
of its value, nor institute any comparison between Corinthian elegance, or 
Ionian grace, or even Athenian culture, and Spartan simplicity. But, s.uch 
as it is, this refinement cannot be rapid in its .growth, where war and poverty 
leave little leisure and add nothing to embellish that little. The ravages of 
Indian warfare checked for a centrrv the advance of the fertilizing power 
of commerce, tillage, and education. The fnundalinns were to be later laid: 
the wealth which decorates a land, the endowments which spread so many 
social advantages around, the ta=te Avhich finds nutriment and exercise 
amidst the abodes of affluence, the incitements imparted by great cities and 
the presence of men, the beauty of fields and farms, pastures and meadows, 
bright villages and loyal rural homes, all were reserved for a future day. By 
degrees, all has been gained or will be gained, in a sufficient measure; but 
in the mean time, the more usefid arts and the nobler productions of this 
social state have no need to linger. 

The third great period in the history of Elaine reaches from 1760 to 1820; 
from the close of the French and Indian hostilities to the separation from 
Massachusetts, .ami the organization of the State. 

Those sixty years inchuK'd llie still greater separation which rent both 
Massachusetts and C\laire fnmi the British crown. But the war of the Revo- 
lution scarcely impeded the progress which was characteristic of this period. 
It was now one steady current, almost from first to la<t : and this is a suffi- 
cient prcof thai not the hardness of our winters, but the dread of barba- 
rian ravage, had so king shut up the paths of immigration. The incorpora- 
tion of Po'wnalborough, named from a popular Governor who often came 
to SaeadaliDck, pushed forward the work of colonial enterprise. The 



EDITORIAL 171 



Cushings, the Bowmans, tlie l>ri(lges, the Lithgows, gather there. In 1760, 
tlie two counties of Cumberland and Lincoln are added to the original shire 
of York. Old claims are now revived, new grants are obtained, the course 
of the great rivers is explored, tihe coast between the Penobscot and the 
St. Croix is taken into possession, and Machias is settled. The names of 
Bowdoin, Vassal, Waldo, Gardiner, begin to appear. German and French 
are allured to the pleasant though still wild sites of Dresden and Waldo- 
borough. All is growth, slow, perhaps, but undisturbed : when the storm of 
revolution reaches even to these outskirts of the land. The fairest by far 
of all the towns along this eastern coast is laid in ashes by a mean hostility. 
The train of the companions of Benedict Arnold toil up the Kennehec, on 
their six weeks' march to join Montgomery under the walls of the Northern 
Gibraltar. The soldiers of England hold Castine, and hold it successfully 
against the colonial forces, and with it hold the eastern land beyond. A 
thousand of the youth of Maine fall in the struggle, but the struggle is at 
length over; the noble inheritance is won, and she shares the honors of the 
State which contains Lexinston and Bunker's Hill. 



The sixth jirticle is on ''The Language of the Abnaquies or 
Eastern Indians." by Williams Willis. Students of the literature 
upon the Indians of Maine should consult this valuable paper. In 
it he says : 

The principal residence or settlement of these Abnakies, who inhabited that 
part of the United States, appears to have been the village of Narrantsouack, 
as the name is written l)y the author of this dictionary, which was on the 
river Kennebec. The Indian appellation is still preserved in our corrupted 
American name, Norridgewock. 

Father Rasle took up bis residence at Norridgewock in 1691. He says in 
one of his letters : "It was among these people, who pass for the least rude 
of all savages, that I went through my apprenticeship as a missionarj'. My 
principal occupation was to study their language. It is very difficult to learn, 
especially wdien we have only savages for our teachers. 

"They have several letters which are sounded wholly from the throat, 
without any motion of the lips: on for example, is one of the number. I 
used to spend part of the day in their huts to hear them talk. At length, 
after five months constant application, I accomplished so much as to under- 
stand all their terms. 



In it is also the full text of three of the most important Indian 
treaties, 1735 at DeerfieM, Mass.; 1749 at Falmouth, Maine: 1752 
at St. George's Fort. Maine ; and an appendix to Mr. Willis' arti- 
cle bv C. E. Potter giving important facts regarding the language 
of the Abnaquies. 

The memoir and journals of Paul Coffin, D. D., in this volume 
are of interest and importance. The last items in it are these : 



172 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



NOTE. 

The following- is a copy of an original letter from Bridget Phillips to 
Edward Rishworth, Recorder for the Province of Maine, who then resided 
in York, where the records were kept and the Courts held. The letter and 
signature are in clear and beautiful chirography and in the style of that day. 

Bridget Phillips was the second wife of Major Wm. Phillips. Her first 
husband was John Sanford, who moved to Boston from Rhode Island in 1637, 
by whom she had several children. Her son Peleg Sanford was Governor of 
Rhode Island three years, vi? : 1680-1-2. One of her daughters married 
Elisha Hutchinson and wa'^ grand mother of Thomas Hutchinson, Governor 
of Massachusetts. 

Phillips was a vinter in Boston, and moved to Saco in 1660, where he was a 
large land proprietor and extensively engaged in lumberino- operations. His 
title embraced a large tract in Saco, and the Fluellen tract, purchased of a 
Sagamore of that name, eight miles square, in what are now the towns of 
Sanford, Alfred and Waterboro'. Sanford took its name from Mrs. Phillips' 
son by her first marriage. Phillips removed to Boston on the breaking out of 
the Indian troubles in 1675, in which his house and mills were burnt, and 
died there in 1683. Further particulars of this family and their possessions 
may be found in Folsom's history of Saco, pages 162-165. 

On the back of the letter in Rishworth's writing, is the following 
endorsement: "By Cosson Phillips her order about entering of a caution 
referring to her lands and mills at Saco." W. 



LETTER. 



'Mr. Rishworth, Sir: Being informed by yourself aiid others, that Captain 
Barefoot and some others, make some pretense of claim to ye Lands left by 
my late husband, Maj. William Phillips, lying in Saco, and have entered 
upon the same. I know that all their claims are Imt mere pretenses and alto- 
gether vain, whatever trouble I may be exposed unto : but being obliged by 
virtue of my executorship to ye last will of my sd husband, I hold myself 
bound to do what I lawfully may to defend our title, and therefore have 
written these lines to lye with yourself as caution against the Recording of 
any Deeds or Instruments seeming to grant right or title to ye said Lands 
or any grant thereof to any other persons, and for the saveing of our own 
right. Mr. GifYard hath been spoken wiih, and says Captain Barefoot hath 
proceeded too far in that matter. 

Your lovc'ing Friend, 

BRIDGET PHILLIPS. 

Boston, 29th July, 1684. 

For Mr. Edward Rishworth, Recorder for the Province of Mayne. 
Province of Mayne: This Caution entered into tlic 4th book of Records, pa 
21, thi- nth of .\ugust, 1684: per Edward Rishwnrtli, Recorder. 



SAYINGS OF SUBSCRIP.ERS 173 

Sayings of Subscribers 

After the first few numbers of the Journal had been issued 
letters from subscribers who appreciated our endeavors were so 
frequent that we began to select some of their sayings that were 
kindly and encouraging, words also reminiscent of past days in 
Maine, and often references to some article in the Journal that 
was a valuable side-light upon an important topic in Maine history. 

Thus this column has become a feature not only of interest to 
our readers but of real historical value as well. 

We may also, perhaps be pardoned for having indulged in some 
pride that it has disclosed the fact that our readers are among those 
who are cultured and intellectual. 

From one of the leading members of the Kennebec bar and one 
well known throughout Maine as a talented public speaker, we 
recently received the following: 

The work you are doing is worth doing and 3'ou are doing it well. These 
words are not perfunctorily said, but I use them with full sense of their 
meaning and with deep sincerit_v. 

He is so thoroughly well equipped as a student of literature and 
history that we were especially gratified at his appreciation, and 
we undertook to publish it in om^ last issue — and then something 
happened. It appeared in this column as being from LeRoy K. 
Knight of Augusta, Maine, when it should have been the above 
mentioned LeRoy L. Hight of Augusta. 

Whether it v.-as the fault of copyist, type setter, or the blundering 
editor is yet mysterious and how it passed by our proof reader 
is more so. 

It was at least very regretable. 



Hon. W. B. Kendall, Bowdoinham, Maine: 

Certainly your last issue is the best of all The particular thing that 
appeals to me most in your last issue is that statement of the coming reading 
book for the Maine schools on Maine topics. This is just a step in the right 
direction. It will certainly win out very much in this in the next few years. 



Mr. F. H. Heiskill, Portland, Maine: 

Everyone likes the Journal. It is certainly a good magazine for any one. 



George H. Smardon, Portland, Maine : 

The Journal for November, December, January arrived today and I am 
always pleased when it gets here. After reading the current news, war news, 
religious news and so forth, it is a delight to read any nuniber of the Journal. 
Wish Gene Edwards would give us more of his poetry. 



1/4 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL UF MAINE HISTORY 



Mrs. P^lizabeth P. Merrill, Skowhegan, Maine, a talented writer of 

verse and prose : 

You are doing a splendid work for the State and we all appreciate it. "To 
each man his time and Place." You will l)e a help to the generations to come, 
— will live after your flesh and bones are dust. Your spirit will form a new 
body to "carry on" some good work in a state of consciousness not yet 
familiar to us; hut which will be some time. 



Rev. Geo. A. Martin, Grace M. E. Church, St. Johnsbury, Vermont : 
With pleasure I renew my subscription to the Journal. Each issue is so 
highly prized that the loss of one is keenly felt. The last was especially 
rich in its biographical material and a great challenge to the men of Maine 
to be worthy of successors of the great men of other days. 



John L. Tewksbury, Camden, Maine : 

I have thoroughly enjoyed reading this interesting publication and hope 
to have my subscription continued. I am very much interested in Maine 
history and think that you are doing a fine thing in devoting so much of 
your time and talent to this nnportaiit, valuable and interesting subject. 



Hon. James Phinney Baxter, Portland, Maine. : 

What you say with regard to the indifference which has been exhibited 
by our Legislature relative to Maine history is not in the least over-stated. 
I DO NOT KNOW OF ANYTHING THAT EXHIBITS THE INTEL- 
LECTUAL STATUS OF A COMMUNITY MORE THAN THE MAN- 
NER IN WHICH IT PRESERVES AND PUBLISHES ITS HISTORY^ 
Massachusetts has led in this work, as it always has led in intellectual activity 
the other states of New England. I should like to see Maine as active as 
Massachusetts in making its history accessible to students. As you know I 
have long labored in this field, and though it has been an unthankful task, 
I am fully satisfied that it is a useful contribution to our literature. I hope 
vou mav be successful in \our efforts. 



F. Willis Rice, Editor and Publisher of The Daily National Hotel 

Reporter : 

I always read your "Journal o'f Maine History" with interest, but the 
current quarterly number, covering the months of November, December 
and January, is of peculiar and indeed absorbing interest. 

The life-like portrait and admirable sketch of the late Judge Peters excites 
my admiration. You are so thoroughly conversant with the political his- 
tory of Maine, that you will doubtless recalll the fact that Judge Peters was 
the successor of my father, the late John Hovey Rice, in the U. S. House 
of Representatives at the opening of the Fortieth Congress. 

The equally remarkable portrait of the late George V. Edes carries me 
back still farther in retrospect. I can see him now with his stooped shoul- 
ders and ample pedal extremities, making his way across the bridge from 
Foxcroft. 



SAYINGS O'F SUBSCRIBERS i75 



Mr H. A. Free, Director of Chamber of Commerce, Lewiston, Me. : 
The Journal has interested me very much especially the interesting sketch 

of the late Chief Justice Peters. 

ALL Maine peoplle ought to be interested in your publication. 

Chosen in June, 1790, and to continue in office by resolve of the 
General Court in Tune, 1791. ^ov the collection of duties on car- 
riages, etc.. and for settling their excise accounts with licensed 

persons: 

Isaac Pope. York; Ebenezer May, Cumberland; Richard Hunne- 
well, Hancock; John Cooper. Washington. Joseph Greenleaf was 
the light-house keeper at Portland, Casco Bay. 
(Mass. Register for 1793) • 

Senators from the District of Alaine in the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature for 1803 were: Simon Frye and John Woodman, York 
County; W^oodbury Storer and John Cushing. Cumberland, and 
John Chandler. Kennebec. 

Public Notaries in 1803 were: Thomas Cutts, Pepperelborough ; 
Joseph Tucker. York; John Froithingham, Portland; John Peterson, 
Brunswick; Ebenezer Whittier. Pownalborough ; Jacob Ludwig, 
Waldoborough ; Nathaniel Dummer, Hallowell; Francis Winter, 
Bath; Gabriel Johnnot, Penobscot; EH Forbes, Gouldsborough ; 
Phineas Bruce, Machias. 

In 1793 the District of Maine had three of the ten academies in 
Massachusetts, viz.: Hallowell Academy. Fryeburg Academy and 
Washington Academy at Machias. 



The six principal Indian wars in New England, all ot which weix 
participated in bv the early settlers of Maine, were King Philips 
War. begun June, 1675; King WiUiam-s, August 1688; Queen 
Ann's, AugusL 1763; Lovwdl's, June 13. 1722: the Spanish and 
Five Years Indian War. July. i745< and the French and Indian 
War. 1755. 

The Journal gratefully acknowledges a valuable gift from Henry 
M Packard of Guilford, Me., it being a complete set of the Maine 
Legislative Biographical Sketches, from 1872 to 1919 "^^l^f^ve. 
This collection was begun by his father the late Honorable Cyrus 
A. Packard, former State Land Agent. 



1/6 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Notes and Fragments 

The Maine State Library at Augusta is daily becoming more 
useful to all of the citizens of Maine. 

Mr. Dunnack is constantly striving to make it so. Not only has 
the good work of the traveling libraries expanded greatly under 
his management, but the people generally, those at the cross roads 
and smallest hamlets have been encouraged to write in and borrow 
books that they need in the Hues of study which they are pursuing. 
This is as it should be. 

They pay for it when the tax bills are met and it should be equally 
accessible to all. It ought to be made as beneficial to the members 
of clubs and granges and students of all degrees at Jonesport, 
Rangeley or Fort Kent as to such who happen to reside in the 
immediate vicinity of the Capital City. 



Recently the Boston Herald olTered prizes for stories of "real 
battles with cold and storm." Mr. R. L. Gibson of Harrington, 
Maine, wrote one which was accepted and published in the Sunday 
Herald of Dec. 29, 1918, entitled "Playing for Dear Life on Moose- 
head Lake." 



The following is from a recent Maine newspaper : 
Captain Ehvell P. Todd of Georgetown will on January 18, 1919, celebrate 
his 90'th birthday. He is the oldest resident of his town and the oldest' pilot 
on the Kennebec, having for many years piloted vessels up and down the 
river. He remembers well when the daily arrival of 25 or more vessels at the 
mouth of the river was no unusual event, while now the appearance of 
even one is an event indeed. He was a delegate to the first Republican con- 
vention in Maine, which nominated Hannibal Hamlin for Governor. He 
served for five years as a Sagadalhoc county fish and game warden. Captain 
Todd is in excellent health and saws a few sticks of wood every day for 
exercise and practice. He married ]\Iiss Filena Spennes who died some 15 
years ago, and now lives with his sister, Mrs. Harriet Deering of George- 
town. 



The following item having recently appeared in the Maine news- 
papers, we asked Col. P)Oothby if it was correct and he assin-ed us 
that it was. 

Col. Frederic E. l^oothby, who for many years was general passenger 
agent of the Maine Central Railroad, has a curiosity on the lawn of his 
home at Waterville, Maine, in the shape of the four wheels of the tender 
of the Pioneer, the first locomotive of the first railroad in Maine, the Bangor, 



NOTES AND FRAGMENTS 177 



Oldtown, and Mil ford Railway, more generally known as the Veazie Rail- 
road. The Pioneer was built in England in 1830 by Stephenson and brought 
to this country. The wheels referred to are of oak with a half inch iron tire 
and an iron flange. A few years ago they were found in a pile oi junk by 
the station agent at Oldtown and sent to Col. Boothby. It would seem as 
though such interesting relics deserve a more permanent resting place than 
outdoors. 

This also attracted the attention of Mr. Ambrose E. Roberts of 
Boston, who in a letter to the Colonel under date of Jan. 19, 19 19, 
adds this to the history of one O'f the oldest railroads in America : 

I read with interest recently an article on your possessing the wheels of 
the first locomotive used in Maine. 

My great grandfather and great uncle, Edward and Samuel Smith, for- 
merly of Bangor, were the ones who built this old railroad and brought 
this equipment from England. I have in my possession an old Bangor paper 
describing their ventures and activities in the olden days. This article was 
written at that time by D. M. Howard, formerly in the insurance business in 
Bangor, and who was Clerk for the firm of E. & S. Smith. 

Would it be a possible thing for me to obtain possession of one of these 
wheels, being the great grandson of the man who brought this locomotive 
to this country — it seems only right that one of these should fall into my 
hands. 

I am the son of Edward F. Roberts and formerly lived in Bangor. I 
believe you know my father and mother. Many souvenirs of this old road 
were in the Bangor Historical Society Rooms and were burned up. 

Of course. General Veazie has been handed most of the credit for building 
this road, but as a matter of fact Edward and Samuel Smith built it and" 
went broke just as it was completed, the road being sold to General Veazie 
for $55,000 and given his name. 

I would appreciate it very much if I could get possession of one of these 
wheels. 



JEFFERSON AND THE CONSTITUTION OF MAINE 

During the session of the Legislature of 1834, as a member of the 
House I attended a meeting of the Committee on Education, wheii 
the subject of making a grant to one of the Seminaries of learning 
was under discussion. Governor King being present was requested 
to give his viev/s to the committee. 

He went very fully into the question, taking strong ground in 
favor not only of providing for Common Schools, but also of 
endowing our higher Seminaries. After speaking at considerable 
length upon education generally, and the means of promoting it, he 
•stated that Article VIII of our Constitution was drawn by Mr. 
Tefferson. ttnder these circumstances: — 



178 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



After the vote of separation was passed and Cjovernor King was 
elected a delegate to form the Constitution, but before the Con- 
vention was held business called him to Washington. While there, 
it occurred to him that he should be very glad to see Mr. Jefiferson 
and get his views of the best Constitution for the State. So he 
"took a turn" down to Monticello to see and converse with his old 
"friend," as he exipressed it. He spoke of the interview as affording 
him a great deal of pleasure. Mr. Jefferson seemed to take a deep 
interest in the new State, and said it was very important to start 
right. They talked about the general provisions of the Constitution, 
but there was nothitng that he entered into with so much spirit 
as the cause of education. Upon that he dwelt as the main pillar 
of the prosperity and character of the State. 

Near the close of the interview Governor King said to Mr. Jef- 
ferson, 'T wish you would write what you have said, putting it inta 
the form of an Article to be incorporated into oiu- Constitution." 
Thereupon Mr. Jefferson took his pen and wrote out the substance, 
if not the exact words, of Article VIII., which was inserted 
through the influence of Governor King. 

SAMUEL P. BENSON. 

Brunswick, Feb. 9, 1870. 

(Collections of Maine Hist. Soc. Vol. 7, p. 241.) 



k 



Castle of Old Fort William Henry, Peniaquid Beach, Maine 



HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS 179 

STATE AID FOR MAINE HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS 

The duty and niission of the Journal as we conceive it to be is to 
confine its labors strictly to matters pertaining to the history of 
Maine past and present. 

While the editor personally has convictions of his own regarding 
political, social, religious, and other questions of interest to the 
general public, he refrains entirely from inflic'ting them in the 
faintest degree upon the readers of the Journal. 

()ur positive mtention is to keep its columns an open forum 
where persons of all creeds can meet upon a common level in the 
discussion and advocacy of all phases of Maine historical subjects 
and nothing else whatsoever. The government of the state of 
Maine, however, in its executive and legislative capacity frequently 
has to do with policies and legislative measures relative to these 
very subjects. It can make or mar, encourage or discourage, vital- 
ize or blight, the public interest in wihat the Journal holds to be 
vital in promoting patriotic ideals and developing good citizenship 
in Maine. Hence we reserve the right to comment upon, commend 
or criticize any of its acts an this regard. In pursuance of this 
idea we have frequently called attention in these pages to its 
strange policy during the past ten years in reversing its course for 
half a century in aiding the publication of Maine historical books 
written by Maine authors. 

At the last session of the Maine legislature. Senator Metcalf of 
Piscatac^uis introduced the following legislative bill: 

Section i. The governor, by and with the advice and consent of the 
council, shall appoint three persons, at least one of whom shall be a member 
of the Maine tlistorical Society and another a professor of some college 
within the state of Maine, who shall constitute and be known as the r^Iaine 
Historical Conniiission, to serve without compensation, except their travel- 
ing and other necessary expenses which shall be audited by the state auditor 
and paid 1)y the state treasurer upon certificate of the state auditor, as pro- 
vided by law. One of these persons, as selected by the governor upon the 
first appointment, shall serve for three years, one for two years and one for 
one year, and upon the expiration of the terms of each his successor shall 
be appointed for the term of three. Any vacancy arising before the expira- 
tion of a term of office shall he tilled ity appointment by the governor for 
the residue of the term. The board shall elect a president, and make such 
rules and orders for the regulation of its business and proceedings as it may 
deem necessary. 

Sect. 2. When state aid sliall l)e asked of the legislature to assi>t in the 
pu])lication, editing or compiling any manuscripts, documents or writings 



i8o SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



pertaining to the history of the state oi Maine, such manuscripts, documents 
or writings shall first be submitted to said commissioners to examine and 
review, who thereupon shall forthwith report to said legislature their ap- 
proval or disapproval of, or suggest any desired changes in the same. 

l"he editor of the Journal ably supported by Hon. H. E. Dunnack, 
State Librarian, Mr. Charles A. Flagg, Librarian of the Bangor 
Public Library, Mr. LeRoy L. Hight, of Augusta, \Vn:. Bonney, 
of Bowdoinhani, former speaker of the Maine House of Repre- 
sentatives, anvl State Treasurer. Joseph W. Simpson, of York, 
appeared before the library committee in behalf of this bill. 

The Committee reported "ought to pass in a new draft" the 
following act uhich was passed and approved by Governor Milliken, 
March 19, 1919: 

An Act Providing for the Examination and Review of Historical flatter 
for Publication of which State Aid is Asked of the Legislature. 

When state aid shall be asked of the legislature to assist in publication, 
editing or compiling of any manuscripts, documents, or writings pertaining' 
to the history of the State of Maine, such manuscripts, documents, or writ- 
ings, shall first be submitted to the state librarian and to a professor of 
history of some college or university within the State of Maine, who shall 
be appointed by the governor, which two, in conjunction with some member 
of the Maine Historical Society to be selected by them, shall examine and 
review such maiiuscripts, documents, or writing and shall report to the 
legislature their approval or disapproval of or suggest changes in the same 

We believe that in this Maine has taken an advanced step in the 
direction of a more enlightened policy in reference to this subject 
and that the act as finally passed is better than the Metcalf bill was 
in its original form. 

Under this law when any citizen of Maine believes he has pre- 
pared a work of value upon an important state historical subject, 
he can file it with the State Librarian, who will obey the mandate 
of the state by organizing a committee as therein provided, who 
will act upon it and make its report to the legislature. Such a 
report favorable or unfavorable must of necessity have great weight 
with that body. It will not in any sense depend upon the vagaries 
or whims of an executive, or a legislative committee, and if publi- 
cation is advised by the committee it will at least establish confidence 
in the project. 



INDEX 



i«i 



INDEX 



Abbott, William 
Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. 
Adkius, Charles G. 
Albee, John 

Aldeu, John and Priseilla 
Alexander. Setli 

Alfred, beginnings of Shalver- 
ism at, 

converts to Shalverism at, 

town of, liow it disposed of, 
lSS(3-7 surplus 
Allan, Col. John 
Allen. William 

William C. 
Alphab<?tical index of Maine Rev- 
olutionary pensioners IS, 68, 
American Magazine, the 
Andrews. Joseph 

Mark 

Robert 
Androscoggin river fisheries 
An^on Academ.v 
Appleton, John, sketch of, 

Nathan D. 
Arnolil's (Benedict) Letters 

Expedition, Indians with, 
Aroostook War volunteers 

Company roles of volunteers 
in, 
Asliman, Phineas 
Atlantic and St. Lawren<>e R. R. 
Atwood, Bphraim 
Augusta, a social event of in 
1854 

first dam built 

peace celebration 

postofflce established 

salmon taken at 
Austin, Harry B. 



:m. 



61 
158 

58 



14:; 
14:! 



89, 106 
144 



lis, 15;^. 

4:! 

5:^ 

13 

71 

1.59 

25 

100 

72, 7:^ 

3, 6, 37 

108 

147 

147-152 

117 

K! 

14 

166 
159 
1.3.3 
12 
159 
1.58 



B 



Bagaduce Expedition, tlie 
Bailey. Charles 
Bangor, churches built 

Commercial, the 

conduct of British at, in War 
of 1812 

Court house 

Daily News, the 

first clerg.vman in. 
meeting house in, 
iirinting office in. 
public building in, 

H-'ii-'p. the 

incorporated 

origin of name 

population 

Public Library 

sketch of. in early days 

Weelvly Register, the 
Barber, Susan 
Barker. A«:) 
Barnard. Daniel 
Barnes, Benjamin 

.John 
B.'irrows, Fred D. 
Bates College 
Baxter. .Tames Pliinne.v 17, 38. 

Manuscripts, tlie 
Beauchamp. .John, grant to 
Bennett. .Tames Gordon 
Benson, Samuel P., letter of 



18. 



Berwick, town of 
Biddeford Falls 
Bingham Purchase, the 
Biographic Gilmi)ses of Some 

Maine Men 
Bird, George E. 
Black, Col. John 
Blaine, .Tames (i. 
Blair. Mrs. Lyman 
Blossom, William 
Bolton, Philip, discharge from 

Revolutionary Army 
Boothby, Col. Frederic 
Boston and Portland post route 

Globe, the 
Bowden, C. H. 
Bowdoin College 
Bradbury. Capt. Jabez 51 

Jeremiah ' 

Bradford. Chloe 
Breretou. Sir William 
Bridgton, Revolutionary sol- 
diers of 
Brocklebauk, Joseph 
Brown, Barbara 

Enoch 

Samuel 
Browsings in the Editor's 
Library 34 

I'.runswick. first settler of 
Bunker, John E,, sketch of 
Burgess, George (D. D,) 
Burnham, Horace M. 
Burr. Aaron 
Burrage. Henry S. 
Burton, Agnes 

Alice Lewis 

ancestry 

Benjamin 50 

Capt. Benjamin, sketch of 
letter of 

Betsey Barber 51 

Chloe (Bradford) 51 

Elizabeth 51 

Hannah Church 51 

Jane .e>i ?;.■? 



.35 

1.52 
6 

79-104 

17 

<i 

79 

101 

12 

140 

176 

11 

82 

i;» 

25 
.53 
73 
51 

03 

71 

71 

142 

117 
142 

61. 107 
04 
104 
169 
69 
36 
17 
53 
50 
53 

, 51, 53 
48 
52 



110, 


111 


.Tane (Rol)inson) 


51 




1.51 


John 


51 




44 


Mary 


50 




126 


Rebecca 


50 






Sarah 


51 




126 


Susan McCobb 


51 




45 


Thomas 


51 




83 


William 


51 




44 


Burton's Fort 


.5-1 




44 


attacked 


53 




45 


Butler, Edward A. 


17 




4-1 
45 

:, 46 


Buzzell. Thomas 


43 


44 








44 

47 


c 




ns. 


15-'. 








1". 


Came. George W. 


73 




SO 


Canals, evolution of. 


15 




51 


Card. Alliert M. 


1.35 




71 


Carey. Marv 


50 




71 


Capt. Thomas 


50 




113 


Carll, Mrs. E. C. 


129 




1-1", 


Carman. Bliss 


54 




82 


Carney. Thomas 


53 




■'>^ 


Carr. Congressman 


1-^7 


1.32, 


173 


Carrabassett river fisheries 


1.50 




.".■^ 


Carter. A. Warren 


96 




40 


Ada Mav 


96 




K-l 


Seth M.. sketch of. 


96 




177 


Census of 1800. ^faine in. 


28 



i82 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Chadwick, Josoph 37 

Chaiiiberlaiu, Capt., Company 

ill Aroo.stook War, 152 

Chainpeiiiowiie, Capt. Francis 5S 

Cliapiii, Artliur 134 

Cliai)lin. Joliu, 71 

Cliapiiiaii. Rev. Jacob 3o 

Cliauucy, Cliarle.s 58, 59, 61) 

Joanna 60 

Mary 58, 59 

epitaph of 57 

the fascinating grave of 57 

Samuel 60 

Choate, Kbeueezer 71 

Church, Hannah 51 

Clap, Asa 125- 

Clapp, Ebeneezer 117 

Clark, William G. 71 

Clason, (>. B. i:!4 

Clough. Henry, Shaker mis- 

.sionary in Main^ 142 

Capt. Samuel 15 

Cobb, Mathew 125 

Cobscodk river fisheries 160 

Coburn, Louise Helen 74 

Coflin, Rev. Paul 171 

Peter 143 

Simon 143 

Conant, Ebeneezer 114 

Frederick D. 17 

John 72 

Conductors, early railroad Ki 

Connor, Sam E. 82 

Selden 17 

Copeland. Thomas J. 80 

Cornish. liCslie C. 91, 95, l-".:! 

Cornville, Revolutionary sol- 
diers" graves at 
Correction, A 
Corson, George E. 
Cotton, .John 

John P.. 
Crockett, G. Langdon 
Crosby, S. P. 
Cumberland County Courts 

& Oxford Canal Co., 
Cushing, Anna (Merrill) 

Caleb H. 

Flora A. 

Joseph W. 

town of 

Waitnvriglit, sketch of 

William E. 
Cutt, Bridget 

Elizabeth 

Mary 

Richard 

Robert 

Sarah 
Cutter. Levi 
Cutts Cemetery at Kittery 

Island 



161 
39 

135 

143 
96 
66 

136 
7(i 
15 
97 
9S 
98 
97 
48, 50, 52 
97 
98 
58 
58 
58 
58, 59 
58 
58 

125 
58 
5s 



D 



Daggett, Windsor P. 


33 


Danforth. John H. 


91 


Partmonth College 


92 


l>av<'c, Nina Ij. 


39 


Davenport. Rev. Isaac D. 


45 


Da vies. Charles S. 


4 


De-iie. .Tohn Gilmore. sketch of 


M 


.Joseph 


3 


Mary G. 


3 


Rebecca 


3 


Deck*'r, Cai't. .Tuseiih 


15 


Decriiig. Henry 


17 


Delaiiois. Philippe 


27 


Derl>y (Ilinghani, Mas.s. Acade- 




my) 


2."i 



Diugley, Frank Lambert — Eu- 
gene Hale 

Douglass, Joshua 

Douty, Capt., Compjiny iu 
Aroostook War 

Dunnack. Henry K. 

Dunning, Capt. ('. T.. Company 
in Aroostook War 

Dutton, Lawyer 

E 



98 
71 



148 
66 



1.50 
127 



Early road-building 






11 


Eastman. Xehemlah 






51 


Sarah (Burton) 






51 


Eastport Sentinel, the 






105 


Baton, A. W. H. 






29 


Virgil G., sketch of 






.S2 


Edes, Augusta 






,S(( 


Itenjamin 






71 


Caroline 






80 


Charles 






80 


Edward 






80 


Family of Foxcroft 






80 


(ieorge 






80 


George V. 


71, 


80, 


175 


Mjircia 






80 


Peter 




45 


. SO 


Samuel D. 


S( 


1. SI 


. S2 


Susan (^^'itherell) 






SO 


William Henry 






80 


P:ditorial 


34. 61. 


129. 


167 


Edwards. Eugene 






S6 


Ellis. Mrs. Francis A. 






98 


lOllsworth 






3 


Elw.vn. .Tohn 






58 


Emery, George A. 






17 


Capt. Thomas, Conii 


)any in 






Aroostook War 






148 



Fairfield, Governor 






147 


High Schools 






2.5 


Journal, the 






2.") 


Falmouth Gazette, 


the 




11 


Farrow, Sophronia 






i:!2 


Fes.'--*n(len, Nicholas 




i:!5 


Fisheries, Maine river, in olden 






days 






1.5S 


Flagg. Charles A. 


17. IS. lis. 


126. 


, 153 


Flanders, slave 






105 


Fletcher Lieut. T. 






53 


Follett. John 






113 


Folsom. Elizabeth 


K. 




i:!4 


Ford. Capt. .Tohn. 


Company in 






Aroosto(d< W.ir 






1.51 


Foster. Asa el 






71 


Nathan W. 






1.5S 


Fove. John Smith 






11 


Free. H. A. 






175 


Freeman, Enoch 




107, 


110 


X.-ithan 






14:! 


.Sanmel 




76. 


107 


French and Indian 


War 




52 


Frothiiigh.'im. .Tohn 




76 


Frye. William P. 






OC) 


Fryclmrg Academy 


25. 


163. 


175 


incoi'porated 






162 


Otficei-s in 18.39 






162 



G 



GahaJi. Alice I'allcn 

James S. 

M.iria ^L 
Gardii'er. Sir Cliristoplicr, stm-y 
of. 

Itobcrt llallowcll 



(;i 

167 



INDEX 



183 



(ierrish, Joanna 








60 


Gilniau, Allen 








46 


Andrew 




107, 


110, 


111 


commission of 








110 


Charles 








43 


Gilmore, Evelyn L. 








17 


Mary 








3 


Glover, John 








106 


Goodenow, D. 








72 


Gorjres, Sir Ferdiuando 






02 


, 63 


Jidiu 








6:! 


& Mason Grant 






62 


, 63 


Robert 








62 


Thomas 








64 


Gorham, beginnings of 


Sh 


aker- 






ism at, 








142 


end of the Shaker colony 


at 




144 


Stephen 








11 


William 








76 


Gould. E. W. 








135 


Grandmother's Grandmother 






poem 








74 


Grand Trunk R. R. 








16 


Grant, John L. 








73 


Greene, John 








53 


postofflce established 








12 


Greenleaf, Moses 






9 


, 7(i 


Simon 


^ 






5 


Grindle family, the 








28 


(Jrove, Mary, story of. 






6 


V6n 


(ioernsey, Frank E, 








76 



H 



Joseph Pease 107 
lauds on Penobscot river lOS. 10!t 
lands, sale of to Massachusetts los 
Messhall 107 
Metagone lOS 
Olenah 107 
Pooler 107 
I'overis 107 
raid at St, George 40, 53 
Sebatis lOS 
Selmor Soctonah (Capt,) 106 
Sewanockett 108 
Soncier 108 
treaties 171 
wars 175 
Indians, Abnaquies, language of 171 
letter of four Chiefs 107 
list of drugs used by Penob- 
scot 70 
Maine, at the Provincial Con- 
gress 107 
in tlie Revolution 105 
Mohawks, the 10!) 
monument to 111 
Passamaouoddvs, the 105 
letter of Geo, Washington to 106 
pay-roll of, in Bagaduce Ex- 
pedition 111 
Penobscot, the 105, lOS, 100 
St. John, the 105 
Tarratine, the 48, 51, 52, 100 
Wawenock, the 48 
with Arnold's Expedition 108 



Hale, Clarence 








17 


Eugene — Frank 


L 


imbert 




Dingle.v 








!(8 


Frederick 








100 


Nathan 








11 


Hall, Brad.shaw 








31, 32 


Halliburton, George 








28, 20 


Hallowell Academy 








175 


Hamlin, Gen, Charles 








102 


Hammond, Capt. 








127 


Otis G. 








30 


Hancock County, divis 


lOL 





t' 


:!0 


Hasey, Benjamin 








l<i7 


Hathaway, Joshua 








5 


Hayward, John 








72 


Capt. John 








71 


Hebron Academy 








ic.:; 


first ti 


•us 


tees of 


161 


first town meeting au 


d 


offl 


cers 


16+ 


town divided 








164 


Heiskill, F. H. 








17.". 


Hibbard. Daniel 








14:! 


Hight. Leroy L. 








17:! 


Hill, Lawyer 








127 


Thomas A. 








31, :!2 


Hobbs, Orin 








li) 


Holmes, John 




72, 


73, 1 


26, 16S 


House, Major Charles 


J. 






147 


How our State Educate 


rs 


Aid 




the Study of Maine 


H 


ist 


)ry 


(•)7 


Howard. D. M. 








177 


Howe, Jacob 








12 


Hume, Charles 








l.-.i) 


Hutchins, Rev. Melvin 


S. 






.m 


Hutchinson, Elisha 








172 


Thomas 








172 



Ingalls, I'hiueas 




71 


Indian Chief, Orono 


107 


100 


Sopiel Selmar 


105 


1(k; 


Dennis Molly Selmar 




106 


Eneas 




los 


Joseph 




107 



Jacobs, Nathaniel 

Jefferson, Thomas, and the 

Maine constitution 
Jones, Stephen 
Jordan, Fritz N. 
"Just Talks on Common Things " 



K 



177 

117 

17 

65 



Katahdin mountain 43 

Keegan, Peter Charles 136 

Kendall, Sarah 143 

W, B, 173 

Kenduskeag plantation 4."! 

stream 43 

Kennebec river fisheries 150 

Kent, Edward 8, 46 

Kilborn, Capt. John 71 

Killerain, Edw.-ird 51 

Elizabeth (Burton) 51 

Kimball, John 71 

King. Cvrus 168 

Rufus 168 

William (Governor) 168, 177, 178 

Kingslniry, Ro.'scoe, obituary 165 

Thomas R 165 

Knox, Gen, Henry 24, W. 146, 1(!S 

Kohl, J. H, 37, 3K 



Ladd, Capt. William 
Lane, .John 

Lee, Ann 1 

Lewis, Alice 

James 

Samuel, majt of Maine 
Lewiston Journal, the 

post otHc(> estal)lislied 
Libby. Charles T. 
Liiic(dn. Governor EnocI 
Littk'tield, I.,ynian 



106. 
140. 



107, 
141, 



15 

108 

142 

50 

40 

120 
12 
17 

16S 



i84 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Loudon Company, the 
Long, Gov. John I). 

Zailuc 
Longlt'How, Ht'nry W 

Stt'IllU'll 

Loomis, Kl'v. Harvey 



4!) 
i:j 
i:j 

70, 125, 10.S 
44 



M 



Macfarkiiie, IShincho B. 

Cornelia S. 

Duncan 

Mary Ann 

Victor Wells, .sketch of 

Zauina 
Madigau, Albert 

John B., sketch of 
Madison, Revolutionary sol- 
diers' graves at 
Mail carriers, early 
Maine, beginnings of Shaker- 
ism in 

Central K. K. 

Charity School 

constitution 

counties and poiiulatiou in 1701 



109 



11 



46, 



36, 
36, 37, 38 



development of its social life 
Documentary History of 
early lawyers 

postmasters in 
first hsliei'ies commission 
postotlices in 
postriders in 
postroad in 
railroad in 
railroads of 
savings bank in 
Maine Historical Society 
annual meeting 
collections of 
first meeting 

president of 
incorporation of 
officers 

organization of 
Histoiical Publications, Stats Aid for 

Legislative Act 
History, how our State edu- 
cators aid tlie study of 
Indians in the Revolution 
in U. S. census of 1800 
Library Bulletin 
map of Lewis' 
Deane's 
Greenleaf's 
Men. Biographic Glimpses of 

Some 7<j- 

Monthly Magazine, the 
notaries of 1803 
revenue ofBcers of 1790 
Revolutionary Pensioners, Al- 
phabetical Index of IS, 68, 118, 
river fisheries in olden da.vs 
solmon, shad and alwive "fish- 
eries 
Senators of 1803 
Shaker Communities of 
State library 
Sullivan's History of 
wheat crop in is: ',9 
Williamson's History of 
Writers Research Club Scliool 
Re.ader 
list of stories chosen 
for 
Maine's Montpelier 
Mallett. E. B. 
Manning. Prentiss C. 
Manson. ,T. W. 
Mai) f>f Maine. liewis' 1794 



104 
104 
102 
102 
102 
104 
95 
95 

1(!1 
12 

142 
1() 
45 

177 

i:!l 

-171 

37 

5 

12 

158 
11 
11 
11 

176 
10 

125 

1()7 
17 
61 

167 
36 

107 
17 
36 

179 

179 



105 

28 

06 

2 

9 

9 

104 

43 

175 

175 

15:; 

158 

158 
175 
i:i9 
176 
:>5 

132 



Deane's 
Greenleafs 
Marden, William V. 
Margaret Goffe Moore Chapter 

D. A. R. 
Marshall, Frank D. 
"Marten Stream in October." 

poem 
Martin, Rev. George A. 

Xathaniel 
Mason, Capt. John 
Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections of 
first president of 
Mayo, Col. Edward J. 

Eliza Ann (Sprague) 

Eliz." M. 

George E. 

Cieorge F. 

.John Gould 

John Gould, Jr. 

Josiah Bacon, sketch of 

Mary E. 

M.i.ior Walter J. 
Mellen. Pi-entiss 
ilerchants, earlv 
:Merrill, Elizabeth P. 
"Merry Dancers" the 
Mitchell, Ammi R. 
Montressor's Journal 
Monvel, Monsieur 

Journal of 
Moody, Rev. Samuel 
Moose-horns, the 
Morton, Thomas 
Mount iiope (Bangor) Cemetery 



5, 125, 107 



36, 



Mc 



McCobb, Susan 
McFadden, E. W. & F. E. 
McGaw, Jacob 
McLellau. .Toseph 
Lieut. William 
McLellan's History of Gorhani 



N 



Negro slaves in the Revolution 

Nelson. Job 

New Gloucester, beginnings of 

Shakerism at 
New Hampshire Historical So- 
ciety 
"New Lighters" the 
Nickerson. Martha 
Noble, Nathan 

Rev. Seth 
Norridgewock, Revolutionai'y 
Soldiers' graves at 

Indian settlement at 
North liangor 
North Eastern Boundary 
Norwa.v Advertiser, the 

postofHce estal)lished at 
Notes and Fragments 
Nourse, Dr. Amos 

Rev. Peter 
Nowlen. Betsey 
Noves. B. Lake 

Edward D. 



o 





Oak. Heriah 


i:!0 


Calvin 


24 


Ed son 


i:i() 


Elizabeth 


17 


Grove Seminary 


i:!4 


Hannah 


2 


liawrence 



9 

39 

161 
30 

128 
174 
71 
62 
35 
61 
35 
89 
<S9 
89 
90 
.S9 
8S 
89 
88 
89 
89 
108 
15 
174 
14:'. 
117 
37 
06 
66 
30 
17 
03 
46 



51 

2.5 

1-27 

107 

105 

11 



i:!2, 



105 
n, 32 



39 
14:; 

1((5 
44 

161 

171 
47 

4-9 
76 
12 

17() 



5 
33 
29 
17 



113 
115 
li:; 
116 
25 
113 
113 



INDEX 



l8: 



Lebbeus 
Loreuzo 
Lydia 
Lyndon 

Nathaniel ll"-^. H-. .IK'. 

Revolutionary descendants of 

01'=^ 11., 

Seth 11-' 

Sylvanus 
Oakes, Nathaniel ll-j. 

Oalis, Daniel 
(ieorge 
John 
Oldham, John 

Old town Island 108. 

Orono, Chief 107, 

OiT, Benjamin 
Oxford County Gleanings 
lawyers in 1809 
in 18.32 
in 1834 
militia in 18:i4 
officers in 1809 
in 1832 
in 1834 
postmasters in 18;!4 
representatives in 1809 
wheat crop in 1837 
town of, established 

first town meeting- 
and officers 



113 
113 
114 
li:'. 
117 
112 
112 
11(5 
115 
117 
115 
112 
114 
63 
109 
109 
IGS 
1(;2 
1G2 
16:! 
163 
16:! 
162 

k;:! 

163 
16 ! 
162 
16! 
164 

164 



29, 55, 132 



and 



racknrd, Henry M. 
Padelford, Rebecca 

Seth 
Paine, Albert W. 
I'an (poem) in Memoriam Virgil 

G. Eaton 
Paris, first town meeting- 
officers 
Hill peace celebration 
postofflce established 
Parkhurst, Frederick H. 
Parris, Albion K. 
Edward L. 
Capt. Josiah 
Thomas 
Parsons, Isaac 
Memorial Library 
Dr. TTsher 
Patten, A. S. 
Patterson. W. D. 
Payson. Rev. Edward 
Peiibody. John 
Pease. Joseph 

Penobscot County, organization of 

Indians, list of drugs u.sed by 

river fisheries 

Pensioners. Alphabetical Index 

of Maine Revolutionary 

18, 68. 118 
Pepperrell, Sir William 
Perkins. Dnniel 

Lucius M. 
Perley. Daniel 

Peters. John Andrew, sketcli ot 
Pharmacy of the Red Man 
Philbrick, Anna Simonton 
Betsey Nowlen 
Ellen" 
Eunice 
Gideon 
Jane Snow 
Martha 
Mnry 
Michael 
Olive 



3 

100 

85 

165 

133 

12 

39 

126, 167 

133 

13:! 

133 

76 

14:i 

so 

17 

1(!7 
71 

107 
:!1 
7(1 

160 



40. 



60 
71 



60 
33 



33 

33 

3'! 



Rhoda 
Samuel 
Stephen 
William 
Zachariah 
l>hillips, Bridget 

letter of 
William 
Pierce, Leonard 

Piscata(iuis County, first print- 
er in 
Farmer, the 
Piscataquis Herald, the 

Observer, the 
Pleasant Point 
Plummer. Stanley 
Plymouth Company, the 
Poland, beginnings of Shaker 
ism at 
postofflce established at 
Porter. Capt., J Company u 
Aroostook War 
C. B. 
Portland 
and Boston post route 
Saco & Portsmouth R. R. 
Savings Institution, the 
Willis' History of, 
Postoffices, early Maine 

first in Maine 
Postriders. first in Maine 
Postroad, first in Maine 
Postroads, some early 
Pote, Elisha 
Powder Mills 
Preble, Gen. Jedediah 

William P. 
Prentiss, Celia A. 
Presumcot river 
Prince, slave 
Proctor. Cnpt. Thomas 
Purchase. Thomas 



33 
33 
33 

33 

33 

172 

172 

172 

95 

SO 
SI 

80 
81 
48 
71 
4W 

143 
12 

149 

134 

11 

11 

16 

125 

36 

12 

11 

11 

11 

11, 12 

14:!. 145 

16. 17 

107 

5 

98 

158 

105 

52 

64 



R 



16 

171 

17 

60 



112 



Rnilroads. early Maine 
Rasle. Fnther 
Rnwson, Bpn.i;imin C. 
Red Man, Pliarmacy of _ 
Revenue, surplus of 1S..6-* 
Revolutionary descendents ot 
Nathaniel Oak . 

soidJS-f' - li^- yi;. '^-.r^w 

118-12.5. 133. 14(). 1.1..- 
157. 161 

soldiers' graves in Madison 
anil vicinitv 
Rhode. Lonon. slave 
Rice, F. Willis 

John Ilovey 
Richnrds. Lnnra E. 
"Ricker Tliir', Tol.-ind 
Ricker. Jabez 
Rishworth, Edwanl 
Roads in pioneer days 
Robbins, Augustus 
Roberts. Ambrose E. 

Edward F. 

Edward 



Robinson. Mrs, 

Jane 

Moses 
Rogers. Ann C. 
Romeo, slnvp 
Ross. Prof. Lel;«'' 
Howe Mrs. TI. C. 
Rumford Falls 
Russell. Edward 



d A. 



161 

105 

174 

174 

SO 

143 

143 

172 

10. 11 

108 

177 

177 

168 

51 

51 

'>5 

105 

135 

34 

1.50 

16" 



i86 SPRAGUE'S JOURNAL OF MAINE HISTORY 



Siico river fisheries 

St. Georges, fort erected at 

German settlers at 

Indiau raid on 

region, the 

River 
Salmon Palls 
Salmon, Shad and Alewives in 

Maine Rivers 
Siinborn, Fred W. 
Sandy river fisheries 
Sanford, beginnings of Shaker- 
ism at 

John 

Peleg 

town of. origin of name 
Sargent, Charles 

Savage, Albert Russell, sketch of 
Sawin, William 
Saw(iuid 

Sawtelle, William Otis 
Sawyer, Elmer W. 
Sayings of Subscribers 
Sayward, Jonathan 
Seavey, Samuel 
Seitz, Don C. 
Selden, Calvin 
Selmer. Dennis Mollv 

Chief Sopiel 
Seohciuet 
Sewall, David 

Harold M. 
Shaker Comnumities of Maine 

Hill. Alfred 
Poland 

Theology, the 
Shakerisin. early histor 
Shaw, Enoch 

.Tustin Henry 

Mason 

Thomas C. 
Simmons, Alice P. G. 

Ann C. 

Augustine, sketch of 

Franklin 

James D, 
Simonton, Anna 



:!9, 71, i:u. 



10.1 



of 



1.52 
40 



4.S 

4S 

151* 

158 

7« 

1,50 

14:i 

172 

172 

172 

143 

91 

12 

48 

160 

25 

17:! 

.30 

11 

71, 7<! 

117 

IOC. 

IOC, 

48 

168 

66 

1.3!) 

143 

143 

145 

130 

57 

33 
27 



25 



Slate (Uiarries 




17 


Slaves. Maine, in the Revolution 




10.-, 


Smar(l< n. (ieorge H. 




173 


Smith. Archibald 




73 


Edgar Crosby 


3. 76. 07 


Edward 


46. 


176 


Peter, slave 




105 


Samuel 


46, 


176 


Smyth, Lawrence T. 




83 


Snow. Aaron 




33 


.Tane 




.33 


Soctomah. Selmor 




106 


Soldiers, Aroostook War Volun- 






teers 


147 


-K.-! 


Revo]nti(,n;M-y 3 lS-2-l. 71. SO. 


105 


V- 


118-125. 123, 14'-, 


ir:; 


1.57. 161 






Some Kniglits of tlie Road 




10 


Somerset County, first newsii.-t 






per in 




so 


.Tournal. the 




80 


Sons of AnK'rican Rcvolut inn 




10-1 


Southgate. Robert 




70 


Si.aulding. A. W. 




135 


Spragne. Eliza Ann 




80 


John F. 




7C, 


Stagecoach davs. end of 




16 


Staples, Arthur G. 


6." 


). 83 


Starbird. Charles M. 




48 


Stephens, Charles AV. 




31 



Stevens, Jacob 

John 
Stevens' Mills 

Stewart, David Dinsmore, sketch of 
Stone, M'illiam 
Storer, Alfred 

Valentine 
Stowell, Daniel 
Strickland, Hastings 
Siilliv.-in. liridget 

Ebeneezer 

James 35 

John 

William 
Sullivan's History of the Dis- 
trict of Maine 
"Summer Streams", iioem 
Suulniry 



13 

1:! 

1.", 

04 

14 

14.5 

143 

117 

151 

.35 

35 

36 

35 

35 



54 
44 



Tarratines. the 4S. 51. 52 

Teamsters, early 13, 14 

dress of 14 

Tcwksbury. John L. 174 

Thaxter, Celia .57 

John 58 

Thayer, Dr. Frederick C. 133 

"There Are No P.-ooks". iioimu 152 
Thomas. Dr. A. O. 120. 130 

Joseidi 117 

Thomas ton 24 
Thomi)son. Captai" Com]iany 

in Aroostook War 148, 140 

William 76 

Thfirnton, Cornelius .5.3 

Todd, Capt. Elwell P. 176 
Towle. Capt.. Company in- 

Aroostoook War I'"* 

Tucker. Richard 64 

Turner, town of, first merchant in 1", 

Capt. Nymphas. Company in 

Aroostook War 1 17 



Ulmer. General 



u 



V 



Vaughan. Dr. P>eniamin 
Veazie Railroad, the 
Voliuiteers. Aroostook War 



168 
177 

147 



w 



AVaite. Enoch 
AValdo Patent, the 

Gen. Samuel 
Walsli. Rt. Rev. Louis S. 
War of 1812 
Ward low. .Tane 
AX'ardsworth. Gen. Peleg 
A\'ashingto'n Academy 

George, letter of. to Gen. Knox 
letter of. to Pass;i 
nnujuoddy Indian 
AVaterford. i.ostoffice estalilislH' 
AA'aferhouse. Governor 
AA'.'iterman Cliarles E. 

S;inniel P.. 
AVatcrville T>nl)lic T>ilir;iry 

salmon t;iken at 
AVaniencK'ks. tlie 
Wi.l.l-er. P.MlI 
Wel)sfer-.\shlmrton Tr(>aty 





43 


40 


. 66 


40 


. 50 




0*^ 




126 


i:W. 


140 




51 




175 


ox 


l(i8 


I- 


106 


^il 


12 


15, 16 


. 17 


10. 


1 ■•,<) 




14 




1",:; 




l.-.O 




48 



INDEX 



187 



Wescott, William 








11 


Wiiidhiam, slaves 


from, ill llevo- 




West, Eunice 








.■*>.■; 


lution 




105 


Westbroolv (Tliomas) 








4 ) 


Wing, George (' 




i:',4 


Weymouth. George 








48 




sketch of 


S(> 


Wheeler, Rev. A. D. 








25 


Henry E. 




s:'. 


George A. 








135 


^^'iscasset 




11 


White, Wallace II. 








9<j 


Witlierell. Susan 




so 


Wliitnian, Ezekiel 








125 


^Vood, Leoii.-nd 




3S 


Wliitnc.v, J. K.. letter of 








126 


Samuel 




117 


.John 0., obituary of 








165 




Y 




Joshua 








71 






Williamson. William D. 




•!5 


3(i. 


16S 








Williamson's History of 


Mi 


line 


'■V 


), 4:! 


York County Tea 


cliers' Institute 




Willis, William 


35 


36. 


157. 


171 


otlicers an( 


memliers 


-.5. 132 



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Tombstone of Mary Chauncy 57 

Bloeli House, Fort Kent 75 

Jolin Andrew Peters 78 

George V. Edes 81 

Josiah Bacon Mayo 80 

First law office of Ch. Justice Appleton, Sebec, Maine 101 

Moosehead Lalie 137 

Birtliplace of Ileiny W. Longfellow 138 

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25 Central Wharf 

PORTLAND, - MAINE 



Quarries and Mill 
MONSON, - MAINE 



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We have positive evidence of the reliability of the advertisers on these pages 

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